DRYING'80

Developments in Drying

Edited by

Arun S. Mujumdar

McGill University, Montreal
HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATION
McGRAW-HILL INTERNATIONAL BOOK COMPANY
Section I
INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS IN DRYING R & D
Summary of Discussion Session on Research Needs and Opportunities in Drying
Arun S. Mujumdar, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
1
A Survey of Recent Polish Research on Drying
C. Strumillo, Z. Pakowski and P. Stolarek, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Technical University, Lodz, Poland
4
Drying R & D in Latin American Countries
Jorge Chirife, Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Giovanni Brunello, Escola PalitechniŠa, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil
16
Researches and Developments on Drying in Japan
Ryozo Toei, Dept. of Chem. Engng., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan.
20
Recent Results and the Current State of Research and Development of Drying in Hungary
L. Imre, Technical University Budapest, Hungary
33
Section II
FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES IN DRYING
Liquid Transport in Drying Macroporous Materials
R.M. Cunningham and J.J. Kelly, University College, Dublin, Ireland
40
Simulation of a Multi-Zone Conveyor Dryer
Steven C. Weiner, Peter R. Ponzi and Larry A- Kaye, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, New Jersey, U.S.A.
48
The Methods of Analysis and Calculation of Drying Kinetics
V-V. Krasnikov, Technological Institute of Food Industry, Moscov, USSR
57
The Kinetics of Drying of Microporous Materials
J.MĚD. MacElroy and J.J. Kelly, University College Dublin, Dublin 2
63
The Mathematical Modelling of Combined Drying Systems
C. Strumillo and W. Kaminski, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland
77
Thermophysical Grounds of Thermoradiation and Combined Drying and Thermal Treatment of Polymer Compositions (Coatings) on Backings
L.S. Slobodkin, The Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk, USSR
82
Prediction of Drying Rates
Dr.-Ing. M. Haertling, University of Karlsruhe (TH), RFG, Institut fur Thermische Verfahrenstechnik
88
Theoretical and Technological Aspects of the Microbic Biomass Dehydration
E.G. Tutova and P.S. Kuts, The Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk, USSR
99
Physical Principles of Vacuum Drying of High-Voltage Insulation
P.S. Kuts and I.F. Pikus, The Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, the BSSR Academy of Sciences, Minsk, USSR
105
Dynamic Model of the Flow-Through Drying Process
T. Balazs, Dept. of Chemical Machinery and Agricultural Industries, Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
111
Prediction of Critical Moisture Content
Mutsumi Suzuki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
116
Experimental Determination of the Diffusivity of Moisture Within Capillary Porous Bodies
G. Kanevce, M, Stefanovic and V. Pavasovic, Boris Kidrich Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd, Yugoslavia
128
Section III
DRYING OF GRANULAR MATERIALS
Particle-Particle Heat Transfer Applications to Drying and Processing - A Review
P. Richard and G.S.V. Raghavan, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Ste, Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
132
Aerodynamic and Thermal Characteristics of Vibrated Fluid Beds - A Review
Rahul Gupta and A.S. Mujumdar, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
141
Examination of Drying Behaviour of Silica-Gel Granules by Continuous Weighing in an Airstream
J.C. Ashworth and J,W. Carter, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
151
A Mathematical Model for the Rotary Dryer
B. Thorne and J.J. Kelly, University College Dublin, Ireland
160
Developments in Flash Drying
D.J. Barr, Barr 8 Murphy International Ltd., London, England
170
Pneumatic Conveying Drying of Cut Tobacco
J.N. Jewell, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A., C.O. Harper and C.A. Plank, University of Louisville, Louisville, Rentucky, U.S.A.
174
Scaling-Up of Dryers With a Spouted Bed of Inert Bodies
C. Strumillo, W. Kaminski and A. Markowski, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland
180
Contact Drying of Particulate Material Under Vacuum
E.U. Schlunder, University of Karlsruhe (TH), F.R. Germany
184
Drying of Granulated Product in a Vibrated Fluid Bed
S. Danielsen and S. Hovmand, A/S Niro Atomizer, Colombia, MD, U.S.A.
194
Drying of Pastes in Fluidized Bed (The Fluidized Bed Grinding-Drier)
Z. Ormos and T. Blickle, Research Institute for Technical Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Veszprem, Hungary
200
Experimental Study on Drying in the Fluidized Bed Under Reduced Pressure Minimum Fluidized Velocity and Heat Transfer Coefficient Between the Fluidized Bed and the Wall of Object Immersed Bed
Y. Kawamura and T. Imada, University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
205
Drying of Granular Products in Vibrofluidized Beds
C. Strumillo and Z. Pakowski, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland
211
Section IV
DRYING OF FOODSTUFFS
A Numerical Approach to Simulate Rice Drying
R. Paul Singh, C.Y. Wang and C. Zuritz, Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis, California, U.S.A.
227
A Simulation Model for Freeze Drying
A.S. Mujumdar, Y.-K. Li and V. Jog, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
233
Centrifugal Fluidized Bed Drying - A Review of Its Application and Potential in Food Processing
M. E. Lazar and D. F. Farkas, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Western Regional Research Center, Berkeley, California, U.S.A.
242
Heat and Mass Transfer During Air Drying of Avocado
Stella M. Alzamora, Jorge Chirife, Pascual Viollaz and Luis M. Vaccarezza, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dto. Industrias, Buenos Aires, Argentina
247
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Drying of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Substances
S.M. Reprintseva and N.V. Fedorovich, The Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, The BSSR Academy of Sciences, Minsk, USSR
255
Microwave Freeze Drying: A Brief Review
H.B. Arsem and Y.H. Ma, Chemical Engineering Dept., Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
258
Use of Up-To Date Processes For the Drying of Agricultural Products
T. Blickle, Research Institute for Technical Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Veszprem, Hungary; and E. Aradi, and E. Pallai Varsanyi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely, Hungary
265
Section V
ENERGY ASPECTS
The Effective Use of Energy in the Paper Drying Process
J.A. Villalobos, AER Corporation, Ramsey, New Jersey U.S.A.
272
Solar Energy Systems for Agricultural and Industrial Process Drying
W.W. Auer, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications, United States Department of Energy, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
280
I The Performance of Convective Dryers as a Function of Energy Efficiency, Capital Cost and Solids Residence Time
J.C. Ashworth and J.W. Carter, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
293
Displacement Drying
D.A. Brandreth and R.E. Johnson, Jr., E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.
304
The Impact of Energy Conservation Principles on Dryer Performance: A Case Study
William H. Poole, The National Drying Machinery Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and John R. Thygeson, Jr., Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
308
PCHP System for Saving Energy in Drying Heat Labile Materials
Dr. Chand Passey, P. Eng., Department of Fisheries and Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
314
Section VI
SPRAY DRYING
Spray Drying in Superheated Steam - A Techno-Economic Study
W.H. Gauvin and M.H. Costin, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
320
Acoustic Spray Drying of Particle Suspensions
J.T. Sears and S. Ray, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.
332
Heat Conservation in Concentration and Spray-Drying of Milk Products
Prof. Dr.-Ing. and H. G. Ressler, Technical University Munich, F.R. Germany
339
Droplet Drying in a Spray Dryer
T. Cakaloz, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
363
Dropsize Distribution of Non-Newtonian Slurries
Iva Filkova, Czech Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineerlag, Prague, Czechoslovakia
346
Heat and Mass Transfer to and From Sprays
T. Miura, S. Ohtani and S. Maeda, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
351
Section VII
DRYING OF CONTINUOUS SHEETS
Through Air Drying of Textiles and Paper
P. Gummel, Fa. Lurgi Kohle u. Mineraloltechnik, Frankfurt/Main, FRG and E.U. Schlunder, University of Karlsruhe, FRG
357
Drying Printed Ink Coatings by Impinging Air Jets
H. Hardisty, University of Bath, Bath, U.K.
367
Observations of Effects of Suction on a Two-Dimensional Jet Impinging on a Porous Surface
W.D. Baines and J.F. Keffer, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
376
Optimum Humidity in Textile Hot Air Dryers
J.S. Parajia, M. Ratna Prabhu and K. Subrahmanyam Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association, Ahmedabad, India
383
Design Correlations for Heat and Mass Transfer Under Various Turbulent Impinging Jet Configurations
N.T. Obot, A.S. Mujumdar and W.J.M. Douglas, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal and The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Quebec, Canada
388
Thermal Characteristics of Contact Drying Through Computer Simulation
M. Ratna Prabhu, M.N. Lunkad and N.R. Kothari Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association, Ahmedabad, India
403
Wood Behavior During Impingement Drying
Howard N. Rosen, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Carbondale, Illinois, U.S.A.
413
Heat Transfer Under Multiple Turbulent Slot Jets Impinging on a Flat Plate
N.R. Saad, A.S. Mujumdar and W.J.M. Douglas, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, and The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Quebec, Canada
422
Section VIII
DRYING OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
Design of Drying Schedules for Kiln-Drying of Softwood Timber
J.C. Ashworth, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
431
Investigation of the Kinetics of Jet Drying of Wood Veneer
V. Anand, G.D. Surender and V.J. Victor, Indian Plywood Industries Research Institute, Bangalore, India
443
Section IX
MISCELLANEOUS
Numerical Modelling of Drying Induced Stresses in Porous Materials
K. Morgan, R,W. Lewis and H,R. Thomas, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea, U.K.
451
R Inertair Drying -- A New Drying Technology
E.J. Kurie, Ross Air Systems Division, Midland-Ross Corporation New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.A.
461
Dehydration of Natural and Industrial Gas Streams with Liquid Desiccants
S. Grosso, A.E. Fowler and R,L. Pearce, The Dow Chemical Company Texas, U.S.A.
468
Fluidized Bed Drying of Chillies (Capsicsmi annum Linn)
M.S. Laul, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Experiment Station, Nagpur, India and J.R. Giradkar, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur Univ., Nagpur, India
475
Drying Process with Discrete Methods of Heat Supply
V,A. Sheiman, The Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk, USSR
481
Psychrometric Studies in Drying
B. Kisakurek and A. Akit, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
486
The Mathematical Model of Drying Chamber for Textile Materials
Jozef Spirnek, Research and Development Centre of Automation and Instruments of Precision, Mera-Poltik, Lodz, Poland
494

APPENDIX
First International Symposium on Drying, August 3-5, 1978
Technical Sessions as of July 20, 1978
508
Errata to Conductive Heating Drying of Granular Bed with Low Water Content
M. Okazaki, T. Yamasaki and R. Toei, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
5~5
(Proc. First Int. Symp. on Drying, 1978),
Errata to Drying Mechanism of a Non-Supported Droplet
R. Toei, M. Okazaki and T. Furuta, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
(Proc. First Int. Symp. on Drying, 1978)
516
Errata to Spinning a Filament in Dry Spinning
Y. Sano, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Japan
(Proc. First Int. Symp. on Drying, 1978)
516

AUTHOR INDEX
517

SUBJECT INDEX
518