DRYING'86

ed. A.S. Mujumdar



Contents v
Preface xv
Acknowledgements xvii

Volume I
Section I
Keynote Lectures
Advances in Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics in the Drying of Cellular Food Systems
E. Rotstein, Argentina
1
Electrical Methods for Drying
C.L. Lopez-Cacicedo, U.K.
12
A Finite Element Investigation into Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Materials with Particular Reference to Ground Freezing
R.W. Lewis, W.K. Sze and P.M. Roberts, U.K
22
Post-Filtration Processes and Their Impact on Drying
R.J. Wakeman, U.K.
30

Section II
Drying Theory and Modelling
Moisture Distribution During the Constant Rate Drying Period for Unconsolidated Porous Media: Failure of the Diffusion Theory
S. Chen and S. Whitaker, U.S.A.
39
A Simplified Calculation Method for the Isothermal Drying of Solid and Hollow Systems with any Degree of Shrinkage
W.J. Coumans and H.A.C. Thijssen, The Netherlands
49
A Multi-Dimensional Model Describing the Lyophilization of a Pharmaceutical Product in a Vial
M.M. Tang, A.I. Liapis and J.M. Marchello, U.S.A.
57
Simulation of the Convective Drying of Capillary-Porous Materials
A.C. Oliveira and E.O. Fernandes, Portugal
65
Measured and Estimated Temperature in Convective and Conductive Drying of a Liquid Film
I. Sjoholm and B. Hallstrom, Sweden
71
Internal and Superficial Temperature of Solids During Drying
E. Wolff and J.J. Bimbenet, France
77
Diffusion Coefficient Based on the Assumption of Similar Concentration Distribution
Y. Sano, and S. Yamamoto, Japan
85
Modelling of the Drying of Refractory Concrete
G. Dhatt, M. Jacquemier and C. Kadje, France
94
Heat and Mass Transfer Predetermination Between a Drying Material and an External Flow
M. Prat, France
105
Analytical Prediction of Drying Rate Curves
V. Strongin and I. Borde, Israel
112
Moisture Diffusion in Synthetic Polymer Filament Packed Beds
L.V. Albert and E.C. Macia, Spain
119
Computer Simulation of Adsorption Drying Processes
R. Hsieh, U.S.A.
127
Dynamic Model for Batch Drying of a Well-Stirred Bed of Solids
K. Viswanathan, M.S. Lyall and S.C. Dhingra, India
135
Modeling and Optimum Operating Conditions of a Through-Flow Dryer
W. Tanthapanichakoon, K. Phanaraya and T. Loychirakui, Thailand
142
An Exact Solution of the Sublimation Problem in a Porous Medium Accounting for the Effect of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer
Y. Donghua and Y. Ding, China
149

Section III
Drying of Granular Materials
Contact Drying of Mechanically Agitated Particulate Material at the Presence of Inert Gas
E. Tsotsas, and E.U. Schlunder, F.R.G.
157
Hydrodynamic Similarity of Conventional and Vibrated Fluidized Beds
K. Erdesz (Hungary), A.S. Mujumdar (Canada) and D.U. Ringer, F.R.G.
169
Drying of Paste-Like Materials in Vibro-Fluidized Bed of Inert Packing
K. Erdesz and Z. Ormos, U.S.A
177
Spouting Behaviour of Wet Solids
K. Patel, J. Bridgwater, C.G. Baker and T. Schneider, U.K.
183
Analytic and Experimental Study for Accelerating and Decelerating Movement of Particles in Pneumatic Conveyer Dryer
G. Xu, China
190
Heat Transfer from Submerged Cylinder Moving in Granular Bed
T. Ohmori, M. Miyahara, M. Okazaki and R. Toei, Japan
197
Analysis of Simultaneous Drying and Coating of Tablets in a Spouted Bed
J. Kucharski and A. Kmiec, Poland
204
A Model for the Movement of Heat and Moisture in Stored Grains as a Result of Mold Respiration
E.A. Lissik and N. Latif, U.S.A.
218
Hybrid Drying of Coals by Combined Radiative and Convective Heating
M. Hasatani, Y. Itaya and K. Miura, Japan
227
Computer Control of Fluidized Bed Dryer with Varying Temperature Condition
V. Ravi, S. Sundaramoorthy and V.S. Ramachandra Rao, India
232
Vacuum Contact Drying of Particulate Material Wetted by Binary Mixtures
F. Heimann, and E.U. Schlunder, F.R.G.
238
A New Chemical Plating Method for the Measurement of the Effective Evaporating Area of a Heating Plate at the Bottom of a Packed Bed
T. Tachiwaki, T. Uchida, and H. Uyeha, Japan
251
Drying of Granulated Solids I
G. Jinescu and A. Iacobini, Romania
260
ITE Method for Determining Drying Kinetics of Solid Granular Materials
M. Stefanovic and S. Nesic
265
Multiobjective Optimization of Spouted Bed Drying
C. Strumillo, I. Zbicinski, S. Grabowski and A. Kraslawski, Poland
269

Section IV
Spray Drying
Drying of Liquid-Solid Slurry Droplets
N. Abuaf and F.W. Staub, U.S.A
277
Spray Drying with Plasma-Heated Water Vapor
M.P. Amelot and W.H. Gauvin, Canada
285
The Experimental Study of Technical Parameters in Centrifugal Spray Drying Process
X. Ji-xuan and Z. Zeng-yan, China
291
The Use of a 'Low-NOx' Gas Burner for Direct Fired Heating of a Spray Drier During Milk Powder Manufacture
P.M. Kelly and J.I. Gray
297
A Mathematical Model for Countercurrent Spray Drying of Highly Concentrated and Superheated MAP Solution
W. Yuan and F. Jufu, China
305
Evaporation and Entropy Generation Histories of Atomized Spray of Non-Uniform Liquid Droplets in a Stream of Hot Gas
S.K. Som, India
314

Section V
Drying of Paper and Wood Products
Preliminary Design Study of a Combustion-Heated Impulse Dryer for Paper Drying
M.E. Nishtingale and F.W. Ahrens, U.S.A.
324
Some Structural Effects on the Diffusional and Fluid Flow Frictional Resistance of Paper Webs Undergoing Hot-Surface Drying
J.A. Lehtinen, Finland
332
A Mathematical Model of High Intensity Paper Drying
J.R. Pounder and F.W. Ahrens, U.S.A.
341
MD/CD Shape Deviations of Yankee Dryer Shells ?Causes and Cure
H. Holik, H. Brugger and B. Calaminus, F.R.G.
350
Drying of Paper: Measurement of Moisture Content
M. Rueff and R. Charuel, France
358
Density Development During Impulse Drying of Paper
S.W. Burton, C.H. Sprague and F. Ahrens, U.S.A.
364
Ambient Air Drying of Wood Chips in Thick Layers
G. Arnaud, and J.P. Fohr, France
371
Moisture Distribution During High Temperature Drying of Yellow Poplar
B.A. Adesanya, J.N. Beard, Jr. and A.K. Nanda, U.S.A.
375
A Theoretical Study of Drying: Numerical Simulations Applied to Clay-Brick and Softwood
P. Perre, S.B. Nasrallah and G. Arnaud, France
382
Adaptive Optimal Scheduling and Control of Batch Lumber Kilns Using a Population Balance Model
F. Kayihan, U.S.A.
391
The Effect of Kiln Drying on the Distribution of Paraffin Wax in Stained and Waxed Incense-Cedar Pencil Slats
K.Y. Wu and J. Lim, U.S.A.
401

Section VI
Drying of Foodstuffs and Biomaterials
Drying Characteristics of Minced Fish on Drum Dryers
K.H. Kim and W. Piyarat, Thailand
408
Transport Properties Measurement of Food Sample Undergoing Sublimation Dehydration
Y. Sagara, Japan
413
Cool Drying of a Milk Cream Type Product
E.H. Kubota and J. Cal-Vidal, Brazil
422
Enhanced Thermoresistance of Enzymes by Drying
B.G. Eduardo, A.M. Klibanov and M. Karel, U.S.A.
428
Atmospheric Freeze Drying: Design and Energy Consideration
E. Eolff, Ph. Louvet and H. Gibert, France
432
An Investigation on the Pressure Drop Characteristics and Primary Drying of Coconuts Using Forced Hot Circulation
R. Nampoorthirty, K. Gisuthan, G. Inayatullah and R. Ravikumar, India
440
Fluid Bed Drying of Grated Italian Cheese
M. Horikawa, T. Kudo, T. Fukushima and H. Hayashi, Japan
446
The Influence of Drying Conditions and Pretreatments on Permeability to Water of Grape Skin
P. Masi, Italy
454
?
Author Index xix
Subject Index xxiv


Contents v
Preface xv
Acknowledgements xvii

Volume II
Section VII
Drying of Agricultural Products and Grains
Rice Drying Simulation
L.R. Verma and A. Noomhorm, U.S.A.
461
Varietal Differences in High Temperature Drying of Maize in the Midwestern United States
R.L. Stroshine and J. Martins, U.S.A.
470
Experimental Measurement of Temperature and Moisture Profiles During Apple Drying
W.C. Chiang and J.N. Petersen, U.S.A.
479
Diffusivity of Moisture in Air-Drying of Raisins
G.D. Saravacos and G.S. Raouzeos, Switzerland
487
Moisture and Heat Transfer Modelling During Durum Wheat Pasta Drying
J. Andrieu and A. Stamatopoulos, France
492
Numerical Analyses on Drying Stresses of Brown Rice Kernel
S. Yamaguchi and K. Wakabayashi, Japan
499
Static Vertical Pressure of Grains on Slots (Air-Entry) in a Two-Dimensional Nonaerated Spouted Bed Grain Dryer
M.I. Kalwar, V.G.S. Raghavan and A.S. Mujumdar, Canada
506
Water Binding in the Apple Tissue During its Diffusive Processing
A. Lenart, P.P. Lewicki and Z. Palacha, Poland
515
Simultaneous Dehydration and Separation of Agricultural Pomaces in Fluidized Beds
L. Monroy, J. Segurajauregui and M. Vizcarra, Mexico
520
An Analysis of Sorrel (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Drying and its Effect on Subsequent Processing
D.R. McGaw and I. Fraser, Trinidad
526
Corn Drying in Fluidized Bed
S. Ulku and G. Uckan, Turkey
531
Infrared Thermal Radiation Drying of Coffee Beans
S. Sanchez and J. Cervantes, Mexico
537
Continuous and Batch Spouted Bed Drying of Coffee Berries
O. Alves-Filho, Brazil
542
Simulation and Nomographic Representation of Energy Requirements in Fixed Deep Bed Drying of Paddy
M. Kulshreshtha, S.K. Mehara and S. Kumar, India
547
Molecular Sieves and Sand for Particulate Medium Drying of Corn
G.V.S. Raghavan and Z. Alikhani, Canada
553
Effects of Kernel Properties on Thin-Layer Drying of Shelled Corn
M.P. Levesque, L. Otten and G. E. Timbers, Canada
559
An Approach to the Choice of Crop Driers for Small Farmers in the Tropics
D.R. McGaw, O.St.C. Headley and C.K. Sankat, Trinidad
567

Section VIII
Superheated Steam Drying
Steam Drying of Wood Particles for Particleboard
J.G. Salin, Finland
572
Superheated Steam Drying of Paper: Effects on Physical Strength Properties
W.K. Cui, A.S. Mujumdar and W.J.M. Douglas, Canada
575
Flash Drying with Superheated Steam : A Mathematical Model
J. Meunier and R. Munz, Canada
580
A Techno-Economic Comparison of Air and Steam Drying
E.F. Faber, M.D. Heydenrych, R.U. I. Seppa and R.E. Hicks, South Africa
588
Modelling Tube to Bed Heat Transfer in Fluidized Bed Steam Drying
O.E. Potter and C.Beeby, Australia
595
Laminar Evaporation from Flat Surfaces into Unsaturated and Superheated Solvent Vapor
M.Hasan, A.S. Mujumdar and M. Al-Taleb, Canada
604

Section IX
Industrial Drying Systems and Novel Dryers
An Innovative Drying Process with Diverse Applications
K.A. Pluenneke and C.J. Crumm, U.S.A.
617
Aspects of New Dryer Selection
D.A. Lee, U.S.A.
625
Designing of Dryer in Tobacco Manufacturing Process
T. Ono and T. Yoshida, Japan
630
Effect of Drying on the Evolution and Combustion of Coal Volatiles
A.E.W. Gaissmaier and P.K. Agarwal, Australia
637
Safety Aspects of Fluid Bed Dryers
A.V. Naimpally, B. Sharifzadh and D. Saletore, U.S.A.
646
Some Safety Concerns for Operation at Elevated % LEL
G.F. Tiefenbruck, U.S.A.
651
Process Design in Fluidized Bed Drying
A. Hallstrom, Denmark
655
Design of Double Drum Direct Rotary Dryers
S. Bhattacharya and S. Chakladar, India
664

Section X
Use of Solar Energy in Drying
A Numerical Study of the Performance of Natural Convection Solar Rice Dryers
P.H. Oosthuizen, Canada
670
Construction, Simulation and Control of a Complex and Integrated Agricultural Solar Drying System
L. Imre, I. Farkas and L. Gemes, Hungary
678
A Large Scale Facility for Experimental Studies of Natural-Circulation Solar-Energy Tropical Crop Dryers
P.D. Fleming (U.K), B. Norton (U.K), 0.V. Ekechukwu (Nigeria), S.C. Onyegegbu (Nigeria) and S.D. Probert, U.K.
685
Design and Testing of an Integrated Solar-Cum-Husk Fired Paddy Dryer of One Tonne Per Day Capacity
A. Chakraverty and S.K. Das, India
694

Section XI
Measurement and Control of Humidity and Moisture
Development of a Capacitive Dew Point Hygrometer for Process Drying
R. Sulouff, T. Randazzo and C. Gruber, U.S.A
703
An Infrared Hygrometer to Measure the Water Vapor Mass Content of Conditioned Air in Drying Applications
R. Guzzi and G. Scalabrin, Italy
708
A New Contamination-Resistant Hygrometer for Industrial Dryers
M.E. Gersh, M.W. Matthew, F. Bien, L.S. Bernstein, and S.M. Adler-Golden, U.S.A.
712
Development of a High Temperature Dew-Point Measuring Apparatus Based on Differential Heat Flow Measurements
D. Rall, U.S.A.
719
Using Electrical Conductivity and Cross Correlation to Detect Fiber Saturation Point in Drying Lumber
R.A. Lessard and J.L. Hill, U.S.A.
726

Section XII
Dewatering
Control Scheme for Optimization of Chemical Feed to Sludge Dewatering Processes
S.R. Srivatsa and W.M. Carlson, U.S.A.
733
Electrokinetic Dewatering Processes
P. Krishnaswamy and J. Bollinger, U.S.A.
737
Using UNIFAC to Predict Aroma Losses in Juice Concentration
S.G. Haralampu, U.S.A.
742
Foam Assisted Dewatering
D.S. Brookstein, J. Skelton, D.R. Patterson and F. Lauchenauer, Switzerland
747
Sludge Dewatering and Disposal Practices in the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry
R.A. Miner, U.S.A.
752
Osmotic Dehydration of Fruit
V. Pavasovic, M. Stefanovic and R. Stevanovic, Yugoslavia
761
Sludge Thickening and Dewatering by Dissolved Air Flotation: FLOATPRESS
M. Krofta and L.K. Wang, U.S.A.
765
Sludge Thickening and Dewatering by Dissolved Air Flotation: Process Design, M. Krofta and L.K. Wang, U.S.A. 777
Dewatering Dilute Fine Coal/Water Slurries to Produce Coal/Water Fuel
D.J. Maas, R.E. Sears and T.A. Potas, U.S.A.
781
Dewatering of Ultrafine Coal
S.X. Huang, G.E. Klinzing and S.H. Chiang, U.S.A.
790
The Andritz Approach to Continuous Press Filter Dewatering
G.L. Evans and B. Clements, U.S.A.
799

Section XIII
Selected Topics in Drying (Mostly Late Submissions)
Experimental Analysis of the Different Phases in the Drying of Natural Rubber
R. Auria and J.C. Benet, France
803
Air Drying in Packed Bed Absorbers
S. Ulku, Z. Kaivrak and M. Mobedi, Turkey
807
On the Study of Evaluating and Dehydrating an Automobile Air Conditioning System
J.P. Chiou, U.S.A.
813
Bouncing Motions of Drops and Particles Between Parallel-Plate Electrodes. A Preliminary Study on a New Scheme of Drying Augmentation
N. Kaji and Y.H. Mori, Japan
819
Simply Calculate the Thermal Parameters of Steam (Water Vapor)
X.L. Su and L.Y. Quan, China --
828
Drying of Granular Materials Using a Geared Heat Pump
W.G. Cartwright and P.M. Hjiantoniou, U.K.
831
Spray Drying and Competing Technologies in the Chemical Industry
K.G. Olsen and J.G. Holmes, U.S.A.
838
Thin-Layer Drying of Wheat at Low Temperatures
D.S. Jayas and S. Sokhansanj, Canada
844
Development of New Vertical Dryers for Grains
M. Stefanovic, G. Kanevce and D. Milojevic, Yugoslavia
848
Stochastic Theory of the Particles Growth, Aggregation and Grinding in the Batch or Continuous Operating Apparatus
N.V. Penkov, and O.M. Flisiuck, U.S.S.R.
853
Heat Transfer Coefficient in Drying Granular Materials
S. Sokhansanj (Canada) and D.M. Bruce, U.K.
862
Prediction of Flow and Heat Transfer Under Multiple Impinging Jets Using Two-Equation Model of Turbulence
S. Polat, A.S. Mujumdar and W.J.M. Douglas, Canada
868

Section XIV
Plenary Lecture
Developments in Spray, Freeze and Agitated Indirect-Heat Drying
R. Toei, Japan
880

Appendix I
894

Author Index
906

Subject Index
911