DRYING'89

ed. A.S. Mujumdar and Michel Roques



Contents v
Preface xi
Section I
Keynote Lectures
Fluid Flow, Residence Time Simulation and Energy Efficiency in Industrial Dryers
D. REAY, Head of S.P.S. Harwell Laboratory, Harwell, England
1
Selective Drying of Mixture-Containing Products
E.U. SCHLÜNDER Dr.-Ing., Dr.h.c., INPL, Universität Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
9
The Role of Irreversible Thermodynamics and the Onsager Relations in the Analysis of Drying Phenomena
S. WHITAKER, Professor, University of California, Davis, U.S.A
24
Considerations in Drying Consumer Products
L.R. GENSKOW, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, U.S.A.
38
Recent Advances in Modelisation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Capillary-Porous Bodies
S. BORIES, Directeur de Recherche CNRS, Institut de Mécanique des Fluides, Toulouse, France
46
Prediction of Equilibrium and Transport Properties in Cellular Foods
E. ROTSTEIN, Professor, Chem. Eng. Dpt, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, U.S.A.
63
Combined Fields Dewatering Techniques
H.S. MURALIDHARA, Senior Research Scientist, Battelle, Colombus, U.S.A.
70
Section II
Fundamentals of Transport in Porous Media
Experimental and Numerical Study of Drying. Compared Behaviours of Two Building Materials
DAIAN J.F. and MEROUANI L., Institut de Mécanique, St Martin d'Heres, France
76
Marangoni Convection in Porous Solids. Effect on Pervaporation and Drying
SCHWARZBACH J. and SCHLÜNDER E.U., Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G
83
A Model of Drying Applied to Softwoods: the Effect of Gaseous Pressure Below the Boiling Point
PERRE P., FOHR J.P., ARNAUD G., Laboratoire des Systemes Energetiques et Thermiques, Poitiers, France
91
Experimental Study of the Drying of Porous Media by Means of Micromodels
MASMOUDI W., ENSAM, Talence, France, and PRAT M., Institut de Mécanique des Fluides, Toulouse, France
99
The Transport of Condensible Water Vapour Through Microporous Building Materials
QUENARD D. and SALLEE H., C.S.T.B., St Martin d'Heres, France
106
The Interaction Between Condensed and Gaseous Water During Migration Processes in Porous Media
DAIAN J.F., Institut de Mécanique, Grenoble, France
113
Convective Drying of Porous Bodies Wetted With an Alcohol Water Salt Mixture
SCHULTZ P. and SCHLÜNDER E.U., Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
119
Section III
Thermophysical Properties and Moisture Measurement
Estimation of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Rice in Bulk
OSHITA S.I. and NAKAGAWA K., Mie Univ., Tsu-Shi, Japan
127
Thermal Conductivity of Wet Porous Media: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements
MOYNE Ch., AZIZI S., DEGIOVANNI A., LEMTA, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France
135
Fast Measurement of the Hygrothermal Properties of a Porous Material Under Hygroscopic Conditions
BASTIAN G., E.N.S.M., Nantes, France
143
Non-Invasive Measurement of Moisture Profiles During the Drying of an Apple
PEREZ E., KAUTEN R. and Mc CARTHY M.J., Univ. of California, Davis, U.S.A.
149
Drying of Paper: Measurement of Local Moisture Content
RUEFF M. and CHARUEL R., Ecole Française de Papeterie, St Martin d'Heres, France
157
Section IV
Drying Modelling
An Integral Model for Convective Drying of Hygroscopic and Non-Hygroscopic Materials
CHEN P. and SCHMIDT P.S., Univ. of Texas, Austin, U.S.A.
162
A Simplified Study of Moisture Transport and Shrinkage in Wood
LARTIGUE C., PUIGGALI J.R. and QUINTARD M., ENSAM, Talence, France
169
Two Dimensional Modelling of Wet Wall-Regions During In-Bin Drying of Wheat
WILSON S.G., Stored Grain Research Laboratory, C.S.I.R.O. Div., Highett, Australia
180
Study and Modelling of Drying Step in the Zinc Ores Sinter-Roasting and Iron Ores Sintering Operations
BELLOT J.P., PATISSON F. and ABLIZZER D., LSG.2M, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France
192
Model for Velocity Profiles and Mass Transfer in a Fixed Bed
VISWANATHAN K., Research Centre, New Delhi, India, and DHINGRA S.C., Indian Inst. of Techn., New Delhi, India
202
Optimization of the Timber Drying Process Using a Combined Drying Simulation and Internal Stress Calculation Model
SALIN J.G., Ekono Oy, Helsinki, Finland
207
Numerical Analysis of Drying and Shrinkage of Salami Sorts
IMRE L. and DORNYEY T., Techn. Univ., Budapest, Hungary
212
Section V
External Transfers and Evaporation
Interfacial Phenomena of Capillary Evaporation
CHENG S.L., MAA J.R. and YANG Y.M., Dpt of Chem. Eng., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
219
On the Mechanism of the Constant Drying Rate Period
SCHLÜNDER E.U., Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
226
Selective Evaporation of a Ternary Mixture Containing One Non-Volatile Component
RIEDE Th. and SCHLÜNDER E.U., Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G
230
Effects of Saturation Heterogeneities on the Interfacial Mass Transfer Relation
MANEVAL J.E. and WHITAKER S., Univ. of California, Davis, U.S.A
238
Modelling of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in a Falling Film Evaporator
BARKAOUI M., RAMADANE A., AOUFOUSSI Z., LOUIS G. and LE GOFF P., LSGC-CNRS-ENSIC-INPL, Nancy, France
246
Studies of the Drying Kinetics of Air Flow through Thin Layers of Silica Gel
KRAVCHIK, T., KORIN E. and BORDE I., Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
254
An Experimental Study on Evaporation Rate into a Superheated Steam Using Laser Holographic Interferometry
NOMURA T., NISHIMURA N., and HYODO T., Osaka City Univ., Osaka, Japan, and
KASHIWAGI T., Univ. of Agriculture and Techn., Tokyo, Japan
262
Section VI
Drying Kinetics
Validity of Drying Kinetics
FOHR J.P., ARNAUD G., ALI MOHAMED A. and BEN MOUSSA H., Laboratoire d'Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetique, Poitiers, France
269
Equipment and Methods of Thin-Layer Drying - a Review
SOKHANSANJ S. and CENKOWSKI S., Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
276
Study on Intermittent Drying of Rough Rice in a Recirculation Dryer
TOYODA K., Kobe, Univ., Kobe, Japan
289
A Short-Cut Method for the Calculation of Isothermal Drying Rates for Slabs of Nonhygroscopic Porous Materials
YOSHIMA M., IMAKOMA H. and OKAZAKI M., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan
297
Experimental Study and Modelization for Air Drying of Cassava and Sugar Beet Pulp
SALGADO M., DANZART M., BIMBENET J.J., ENSIA, Massy, France and MUCHNIK J., INRA, Massy, France
306
Section VII
Deformable Materials
Effective Thermal and Moisture Diffusivities of Granular Starches
SARAVACOS G. and MAROUSIS S., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, U.S.A. and
DROUZAS A., National Techn. Univ., Athens, Greece, and
KOSTAROPOULOS A., Paseges, Athens, Greece
314
Shrinkage during Drying and Devolatilization of Wet Coal
WILDEGGER-GAISSMAIER A.E. and AGARWAL P.K., Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
320
Drying of Natural Rubber: Morphology and Internal Transfer of Water
AURIA R., Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Dveloppement en Coopration,
BENET J.C. and COUSIN B., USTL, Montpellier, France
326
Variable Diffusivity Model for Drying of Highly Deformable Materials
KECHAOU N. and ROQUES M.A., ENSIC-INPL, Nancy, France
332
Approaching Viscoelastic Diffusion in Polyacrylamide Gels
BIZOT H., CAIRAULT A., LPCM, INRA, Nantes, France;
DURNING C.J., Dpt of Food Science and Appl. Chem., Columbia Univ., USA and
ROQUES M., LPCI, ENSIC, Nancy, France
339
Section VIII
Spray Drying and Drops
Factors Governing Temperature and Humidity Fields in Spray Drying
PAPADAKIS S.E. and KING C.J., Univ. of California, Berkeley, U.S.A
347
Numerical Prediction of Spray Dryer Performance
FILKOVA I., Czech. Techn. Univ., Prague, Czechoslovakia
355
The Aerodynamics of Co-current Spray Dryers
OAKLEY D., BAHU R. and REAY D., Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire, England
359
Effect of Viscosity on Spray Drying of Milk
HAYASHI H. and KUDO N., Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Tokyo, Japan
365
Preparation of Fine Particles of Cobalt Oxide by Spray and Freeze Drying of Aqueous Salt Solution
MATSUDA H., KUMAZAWA K. and, HASATANI M., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan
370
A Study of Evaporation from, and Drying of Single-Droplets
ALI H.H., MUMFORD C.J ., JEFFREYS G.V. and, BAINS G.S., Aston Univ., Birmingham, England
378
The Evaporation of Single Droplets - Experiments and Modelling
NESIC S., Boris Kidric Institute, Beograd, Yugoslavia
386
Model for Heat and Mass Transfer in the Atomizer Zone
ZBICINSKI I., Techn. Univ. of Lodz, Poland
394
Section IX
Fluid and Spouted Beds
Selective Drying in Fluidized Beds
SCHWARZBACH J. and SCHLÜNDER E.U., Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G
398
Particle Flow Patterns in a Mechanically Stirred Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Vessel
MALHOTRA K., MUJUMDAR A.S., Dpt of Chem. Eng., McGill University, Montreal, Canada and
OKAZAKI M., Dpt of Chem. Eng., Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
406
Drying Liquid Materials in a Spouted Bed
BARRETT N., Davis Gelatine Ltd, Botany, Australia and
FANE A.G., Univ. of N.S.W., Kensington, Australia
415
Drying of Solutions and Suspensions in Spouted Beds
SCHNEIDER T. and BRIDGWATER J., Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
421
Drying of Pastelike Materials in Spouted Bed
RE M.I., Cefer-Ipt, Sao Paulo, Brazil and FREIRE T., Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Brasil
426
Aerodynamics of Grains in a Large Scale Two-Dimensional Spouted Bed with Draft Plates
KALWAR M.I., RAGHAVAN G.S.V., Dpt of Agric. Eng., Macdonald College of McGill University, Canada,
MUJUMDAR A.S., Dpt of Chem. Eng., McGill University, Montreal, Canada, and
FANOUS M.A., Dpt of Plant Science, Mcdonald College of McGill University, Canada
433
Drying of Alumina Porous Particles under Isothermal Conditions
STEINMETZ D., BAXERRES J.L., HEMATI M. and, LAGUERIE C., ENSIGC, Toulouse, France
440
Design of a Solar Spouted Bed Dryer
CHANDRA R., SODHA M.S., Indian Institute of Techn., New Delhi, India, KHANAM M., I.F.R.D., Dhaka, Bangladesh, RAYCHAUDHRY B.C., Loyd Insulations, New Delhi, India
447
The Experimental Study of Characteristics of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Dryer
WANG Y.N., QING L. and WEI Y., Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China
455
Section X
Various Drying Methods
Specific Energy Consumptions in Grain-Drying Using Solar Energy
PEYRE A., LALAU F. and HAROUNA I., E.N.S.A., Toulouse, France
460
Analysis of Volumetric Heat Transfer Coefficient and Simulation of Particles Drying in a Rotary Dryer
HIROSUE H., YAMADA N., ABE E., Government Industrial Research Institute,
Kyushu, Tosu, Japan and, SHINOHARA H., Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, Japan
468
Atmospheric Freeze-Drying: Experimentation and Modelisation
WOLFF E. and GIBERT H., INRA et INAPG, Thiverval, France
474
The Membrane-Based Concentration and the Vacuum Drying of Proteins and Enzymes
TAYLOR G. and HOARE M., Univ. College London, London, England
480
Osmotic Dehydration: Study of Mass Transfer in Terms of Engineering Properties
RAOULTWACK A.L., LAFONT F. and GUILBERT S., Ceemat, Montpellier, France
487
Theoretical Determination of the Thickness of Film of Drying Material in a Top Loading Drum Dryer
WAN RAMLI BIN WAN DAUD, Jabatan Kejurutteraan Kimia dan Proses, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
496
Osmotic Dehydration of Apples at High Temperature
LENART A. and LEWICKI P.P., Warsaw Agric. Univ., Warsaw, Poland
501
Applying of Simulation to Designing of Vacuum Contact Dryer
SZTABERT Z.T., Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland
509
Preliminary Measurements on the Drying of Thick Porous Materials by Combination of Intermittent Infrared and Continuous Convection Heating
SEGUIN J.N., MAURE D., TONTHAT Q.A., and CHATIGNY R., Laboratoire of Techn. Electrochim., Shawinigan, Canada
513
Section XI
Miscellaneous
On the Interaction of Product Qualities and Performance of Drying
BUHLER W. and LIEDY W., BASF, Ludwigshafen, F.R.G
520
Minimum Energy Thermodynamic Cycles for Determined Thermal Process and Application to Drying
NASSIKAS, A.A. and AKRITIDIS C.B., Univ. of Thessaloniki, Greece
528
Survey of Dryer Sections of Canadian Market Pulp Machines
SAYEGH N.N. and PIKULIK I.I., Pulp and Paper Research Inst., Pointe Claire, Canada
536
Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of Pulse-Combustion Drying Process
NOMURA T., NISHIMURA N., HYODO T., Osaka City Univ., Osaka, Japan, TAGO Y., HASEBE H., Osaka Gas Co., Osaka, Japan, KASHIWAGI T., University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
543
Analysis of the Performance of a Cascade Type Rice Dryer
HELVACI S.S. and PEKER S., Ege Univ., Izmir, Turkey
550
Section XII
Research Needs in Drying
A "résum? of the Discussion Session of IDS'88
ROQUES M.A., Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Industries Chimiques, INPL, Nancy, France
556
Author Index 561