DRYING'94

Proceedings of the 9th International Drying Symposium (IDS '94)

Gold Coast, Australia, August 1-4, 1994
editors V Rudolph, R.B. Keey
Series editor A S Mujumdar

Volume A - CONTENTS

Preface v
Sponsors vii
Section I
PLENARIES
1
Steam Drying - History and Future
R. Wimmerstedt, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
3
Spray Drying: Retention of Volatile Compounds Revisited
Judson King, University of California, Berkeley, USA
15
Drying of Solids Containing Multicomponent Moisture: Recent Developments
Z. Pakowski, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland
27
The Concept of "Identity Drying Card"
Patric Perre, ENGREFF, Nancy, France
39
Osmotic Dehydration. A Process with a Promising Future
A.L. Raoult-Wack, CIRAD-SAR, Montpellier, France
51
Principle and Applications of Characteristic Functions
Morio Okazaki, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
63
Progress in Understanding Drying: 1964-1994
Roger Keey, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
75
A Study of the Powder Density Distribution Generated during the Combined Microwave and Convective Drying of Softwood
Ian Turner, Queensland Uninersity of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
89
Section II
CONCEPTS
113
A New Approach to Contact Drying Modelling
Dominique Farges, M. Hemati, and C. Laguerie, URA 192, Toulouse, France, P. Rosseaux and F. Vachet, Rhone-Poulenc, Decines, France
115
An Experimental Test of the Concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve Using the Thin-Layer Method
I.C. Kemp and H.S. Pasley, SPS, AEA Technology, Harwell, UK, T.A.G. Langrish, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia, Q.J. Zhang and R.B. Keey, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
123
A Test of Lumped-Parameter Methods for the Drying Rate in Fluidized Bed Driers for Bioproducts
J.A.M. Kerkhof, Separation Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
131
Derivation of Surface Emission Coefficient in Isothermal Diffusion Analysis
Jen Y Liu, Agriculture Forest Service, Wisconsin, USA
141
Mathematical Model for the Entropy Analysis of Drying Plants
Radivoje Topic, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
149
Multiple-Effect Superheated-Steam Drying of Woody Biomass Fuels for Pulverised-Fuel Combustion
T.A.G. Langrish, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, L. Arnoux, P.A. Orange, and K. Scott, Convertech LTD, Christchurch, NZ, R.B. Keey, University of Canterbury, NZ
157
Stickiness - a Comparison of Test Methods and Characterisation Parameters
Humphrey Pasley, AEA Technology, Harwell, United Kingdom, Peter Haloulos, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Canada
165
Drying of Deformable Diphase Media: Natural Rubber and Agar Gel
I. Mrani, J.C. Benet, and G. Fras, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier, France, Z. Zirkem, Faculte de Sciences, Marrakech, Morocco
173
Effect of Fluid Radiation on Evaporation of Water into Laminar Stream of Superheated Steam
Nobuya Nishimura, Tomohiro Nomura, and Hiroyuki Iyota, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
181
Experimental Study on Electroosmotic Dewatering of Plastic Clay Bed
Shinkichi Yamaguchi and Hiroyuki Kawasaki, Toyama University, Toyama, Japan;
Kazuhiko Kato and Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Tokai Rubber Industries, Komaki, Japan
189
Mathematical Modelling of Immersion Frying: A Novel Use of Drying Theory
Brian E. Farkas, R. Paul.Singh, and Tom R. Rumsey, University of California, California, USA
195
The Development and Application of a Generalised Model for Sugar Drying
P.J. Tait, A.L. Schinkel, and C.R. Greig, Schultz Tait Greig & Associates, Brisbane, Australia
203
Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics in Drying Process of Porous Mediums by Microwave
Zhen Zheng, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai, China
213
The Effect of Salt on the Surface Evaporation of a Porous Medium
Maw-Tien Lee, Linng-Hsiung Chou, and Jiing-Chuen Huang, National Institute of Agriculture, Chia-Yi, Taiwan
223
Characteristics of the Receding Evaporation Front in Convective Drying
A.A. Almbubarak and C.J. Mumford, Aston University, Birmingham, England
231
Selective Drying by Combined Contact and Convection
W. Blumberg and E.U. Schlünder, Institut für Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, Germany
239
Modelling Gas-Phase-Controlled, Continuous Drying of a Solid Wetted with a Ternary Mixture
M. Vidaurre, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Managua, Nicaragua;
J. Martinez, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
247
Effect of Pressure on Moisture Transfer during Moisture Adsorption
Joseph Irudayaraj and Yun Wu, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
255
Drying Behaviour as Influenced by the Relative Permeability Relations
Wahhi Jomaa and F. Couture, LEPT-ENSAM, Talence, France;
J.R. Puigalli, LGPP-ENSIGTI, Pau, France
263
Concentration Dependent Moisture Diffusivity in Drying of Shrinkable Commodities
G.S.V. Raghavan, T.N. Tulasidas, H.S. Ramaswamy, and S.S. Sablani, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Canada
277
Modelling of Drying with the Application of Temperature-Time and Temperature-Moisture Relationships
V. Konovalov, E.N. Tugolukov, N.Z. Gatakova, and V.M. Netchaev, Tambov State Technical University, Tambov, Russia
291
Vapour Diffusion and Oxygen Transport in a Pore
J P. Fohr, M. Ben Khalifa, G. Arnoud, Laboratoire d'Etudes Thermiques, Poitiers, France
307
Section III
EQUIPMENT
315
Heat Transfer in a Quasi-Continuous Vibrated Fluidised Bed
Yu Shu-Hong, Anhui Institute, Hefei, China;
Ma Baojiao and Weng Yigin, Shanghai Research Institute, Shanghai, China
317
Automatic Moisture Control of Process Dryers in the Agriculture and Food Industries
Peter Douglas, University of Waterloo, Ontnrio, Canada;
G.R. Sullivan, Dantec Systems, Waterloo, Canada
327
Parametric Studies of an Asymmetrical Two-Dimensional Spouted Bed Dryer with Draft Channel
T. Kudra, B. Ranganna, and G.S.V. Raghavan, CANMET, Varennes, Canada;
A.S. Mujumdar and S.S. Sablani, McGill University, Quebec, Canada
335
Solar Tunnel Driers vs Conventional Dehydrators - A Comparative Study
R.J. Fuller, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
343
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Spouted Bed Dryer with a Solid and a Porous Draft Tube
Toshifumi Ishikura and Mitsuharu Ide, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Japan
351
Instantaneous Vacuum Drying System
Yoshihiro Maekawa, Hosokawa Micron Corporation, Osaka, Japan
359
Solar Air Heating for Drying
W.J. Yan and Y.Y. Hu, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung Hsinchu, Taiwan
367
Mechanisms of Drop Oscillations; Effect on Mass Transfer
G. Otteng-Attakora, C.J. Mumford, and E.L. Smith, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
375
Drying Kinetics of Free Falling Droplets
G. Meerdink and K. van t'Riet, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
383
Drying Characteristics of Tea Fluidised on a Vibrating Bed - Handling of Dust Grades and its Impact on Quality
Rohit M. Shah and Suresh K. Goyel, Kilburn Engineering LTD, Bombay, India
391
Experimental Investigation on the Drying Characteristics in a Centrifugal Fluidised Bed
Y.L. Hao and M.H. Shi, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
401
Heat Transfer Considerations in Fluidised and Vigorously Agitated Beds
I. Pikus, Hosokawa Bepex Corporation, Minneapolis, USA
409
Investigation of Spray Dynamics in a Pilot Spray Dryer by Laser Initiated Fluorescence
Judson King and S. Scott Moor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
415
Theory and Practice of Dry Air Production by Honeycomb Rotor Adsorbers
Tsutomu Hirose, Motonobu Goto, and Akio Kodama, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan;
Toshimi Kuma, Seibu Giken Co., Fukuoka, Japan
423
Research on the Movement of the Two Phases of Gas and Solid in a Vibrating-Fluidized Bed Dryer
Zhang Shaoming and Chen Chuanwen, Nanjing Institute, Nanjing, P.R. China;
Chen Guojian, Xian Institute, Xian, P.R. China
431
A New Algorithm for Dryer Selection
I.C. Kemp and Richard E. Bahu, AEA Technology, Didcot, United Kingdom
439
Control Strategies for Corn Mixed-Flow Dryers
Francis Courtois, J.L. Nouafo, and G. Trystram, INRA-ENSIA, Massy, France
447
Measurements of Particle Residence Time Distributions in a Co-Current Spray Dryer
Frank Kieviet and Piet J.A.M. Kerkhof, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
455
Powder and Air Residence Time Distributions in Countercurrent Spray Dryers
T. Taylor, Unilever Research, Merseyside, England
463
Drying Principles on Inert Particles in Mechanically Spouted Bed Dryer
Tibor Szentmarjay, E. Pallai, and A. Szalay, MTA MUKKI, Veszprem, Hungary
471
Automatic Control of Drum Drying of Food Product
G. Rodriguez, J. Vasseur, G. Trystram, ENSIA, Massy, France
479
Mathematical Modeling of Drying of Liquid/Solid Slurries in. Steady State One-Dimensional Flow
David Levi-Hevroni, Avi Levy, and Irene Borde, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel
487
Analysis of the Drying of Pastes in Conical Spouted Beds
J.T. Freire, A.M. Silviera, and W.P. Oliviera, UFSCAR, Sao Carlos, Brazil
495
Principles for Hydrodynamical and Geometrical Design of Vibrated Bed Driers
M.A. Roques, ESIGTI-LGPP, Pau, France, A. Szalay, MTA MUKKI, Veszprem, Hungary, K. Erdesz, Environmental Protection, Veszprem, Hungary, F. Zagrouba, INRST URNE, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia
503
Nonadiabatic Two-Stage Counter-Current Fluidized Bed Dryer with Heat Pump
Ola Jonassen, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway;
Kjartan Kramer and Ingvald Strommen, Norvegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway;
Erik Vagle, Kvaerner Eureka, Lier, Norway
511
Industrial Experience in Superheated Steam Fluid Bed Drying under Pressure of Beet Pulp, Sewage Sludge and Wood Chips, etc.
Arne .Sloth Jensen, NIRO A/S, Soeborg, Denmark
519
An Electrical-Sounding Method for Determining the Moisture-Content Profiles in Drying Concrete Slabs
Roger Keey, J.W. Lovell-Smith, and V. Kerdemelidis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ;
M.J. Cunningham, Building Research Association, NZ
527
Novel Fluid Bed Drying for the Australian Coal Industry
J.P. Beeby and J.B. Smitham, BHP Research Laboratories, Newcastle, Australia
535
Gas-To-Particle Heat Transfer in a Two-Dimensional Spouted Bed with Draft Plate
S.C. Rocha and R.C. De Aquino, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
543
Flow Model for a Two-Dimensional Spouted Bed Including the Spout Width Variation
S.C. Rocha and E.F. Zanoelo, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
551
Airless Drying
Thomas J. Stubbing, Heat-Win Ltd, Bitterley, UK
559
The Application of a Direct Contact, Superheated Steam Atmosphere Sludge Dryer and Packaged Cogeneration System with an Anaerobic Digester System
Francis A. Di Bella, Tecogen, Waltham, USA;
W. Bastuk, Larsen Engineers, Rochester, USA
567
Section IV
INDUSTRIAL
581
Drying Behaviour of Chemically Synthesized Bohemite Gel Ceramic Precursors
I.P.Kilbride and A.J. Barker, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
583
Energy Efficient Electric Drying Systems for Industry
Brian Hesse, SEQEB, Brisbane, Australia
591
Study of the Effects of Microwave Power on Nucleation during Evaporative Crystallisation
M.A. Roques, ESIGTI-LGPP, Pau, France; A. Szalay, B. Bodor, and T. Szentmarjay, MTA MUKKI, Veszprem, Hungary; F. Zagrouba, INRST-URNE, Hamman-Lif, Tunisia
599
Preliminary Study of Drying Rate Effects in Radio Frequency Drying
Michel Dosti, L.T.E.E. Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Canada;
Philippe Navarri, CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France
607
Breakdown of Heat Fluxes During Microwave Drying
M.A. Roques, ESIGTI LGPP, Pau, France; F. Zagrouba, INRST-URNE, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia;
A. Szalay, MTA MUKKI, Veszprem, Hungary
615
Drying of Solid Fuel Particles in Hot Gases
Jaakko Saastamoinen and Risto K. Impola, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaskyla, Finland
623
Strategy for Increase Productivity in Rubber Smoking Process
Suteera Prasertsan, S. Sen-Ngam, and P. Kirirat, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand
631
Drying of Latex in Granule Form: Kinetics and Exploitations
B. Naon, G. Berthomieu, C. Saix, and J.C. Benet, Universite Montpellier, Montpellier, France
639
Drying and Condensation Polymerisation Behaviours of Resin Insulation Coating Film
Yoshinori Itaya, Masato Yoshino, and Masanobu Hasatani, Nagoya University, Nagova, Japan;
Yuki Taguchi and Masaya Mori, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Nagoya, Japan
647
Drying of the High Purity Chlorine in Optical Fibre and Large Scale Integrated Circuit
Kong Xiang Zhi, Guangming Research Institute, Calian, China
655
Enhancement of Drying Rates in Paper Machines with Multifunctional Radial Jet Reattachment Blow Boxes-Theoretical Analysis
J. Seyed-Yagoobi, R.H. Page, and M.C. Asensio, Drying Research Centre, Texas, USA;
F.W. Thiele, ABB Industrial Drying, Wisconsin, US
661
Drying of Hygroscopic Nitrophosphate Fertilizers
V.K. Karia and A.T. Patadia, Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers, Narmadanagar, India
667
Analysis of Steam Flow Behavior in the Packed Bed of Coal
Hideyuki Aoki, Makoto Matsuura, and Takatoshi Miura, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
675
Energy Consumption for Industrial Drying Processes in the United Kingdom
Stephen Jay and T.N. Oliver, Aston University, Birmingham, England
683
Aspects Regarding the Drying of Glycerol Monostearate
Elena Ionescu, Research Institute of Synthetic Fibres, Savinesti, Romania;
Gheorghita Jinescu, Polytechnic Institute, Bucuresti, Romania
691
Aromatic Polyamide Drying in Pneumatic Transport
Carmen Tebrenecu, Research Institute of Synthetic Fibres, Savinesti, Romania;
Gheorghita Jinescu, Polytechnic Institute, Bucuresti, Romania
699