DRYING'94

Proceedings of the 9th International Drying Symposium (IDS '94)

Gold Coast, Australia, August 1-4, 1994
editors V Rudolph, R.B. Keey
Series editor A S Mujumdar

Volume B - CONTENTS

Section V
WOOD
709
New Advances in Finite Element Simulation and Modelling of Drying Problems
Kamyar Haghighi, Adriana S. Franca, and Leonardo S. Oliviera, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, USA
711
Unstructured Numerical Solution Techniques Applied to Timber Drying Problems
W.J. Ferguson and Ian Turner, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
719
Numerical Simulation of Superheated Steam Drying of Wood Chips
Anders Rasmuson and Christian Fyhr, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
727
Resolution of the Stress and Strain Components during Drying of a Soft Wood
Michael R. Milota and Wu Quinglin, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
735
Design of Solar-Dehumidification Wood Drying Kiln Characterized by High Capacity and Temperature
De-Ku Shang, ENGREF, Nancy, France; Anders Rasmuson, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Xiao-Dong Zhang, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China
743
Thermal Conductivity of Tropical Wood: Influence of Moisture Cutting Level and Principal Cutting Plan
D. Lecomte and P.S. Ngohe- Ekam, ENSP, Yaounde, Cameroun; G. Menguy, Laboratoire Thermiques, Villeurbanne, France
751
Some Fundamental Aspects on Superheated Steam Drying of Bark and Wood Chips
H. Bjoerk and A. Rasmuson, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
759
Vacuum Drying of Oak Wood
J.-P. Fohr nrrd G. Arnoud, L.E.T.-UA-CNRS, Poitiers, France
767
Comparison of Experimental Results with Analytical Solutions and Two Dimensional Modelisation of Oak Drying in an Evacuated Kiln
P. Audebert, A. Temmar, and C. Basilico, Laboratoire de Mechanique, Montlucon, France
775
Section VI
BIO-MATERIALS
783
Injury to Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactis C2 during Spray Drying
Wan-Yin Fu, Shing-Yi Suen, and Mark R.Etzel, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
785
Mechanization and Evaluation of Rubbing Process on Drying Persimmons
Setsuo Hayashi, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama, Japan
793
Simulation and Experimental Study on Recirculating Grain Dryer
Li Yebo, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Cao Chong-Wen, Agricultural Engineering University, Beijing, China
801
Stress Cracking in High Density Drying: Identification and Quantification
T. Kudra and G.S.V. Raghavan, McGill University, St. Anne de Bellevue, Canada; J. Niewczas and B. Szot, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Poland
809
Drying of Heat Sensitive Bio-Products on Solid Carriers in Vibrated Fluid Bed
Y.K. Pan, J.Z. Pang, Z.Y. Li, Tianjin Institute, Tianjin, China; T. Kudra and A.S. Mujumdar, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
819
Maintaining Paddy Quality by Appropriate Ventilation under Tropical Climates
Somchart Soponronnarit, P. Wongvirojtana, A. Nathakaranakule, and S. Chinsakolthanakorn, King Mongkut's Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
825
A Typical and Practical Design for the Process of "Grain Handling"
Liang Ouyang, Appraising Institute, Heilongjiang, P.R.China
833
Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficient in the Case of Banana Drying
N. Keachaou, Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Gabes, Gabes, Tunisie; M. Maalej, Tunis Universitare, Tunis, Tunisie
841
Drying Process and Heat Resistance of Cocksfoot Seeds with Heated Air in Motionless Layer
Wlodzimierz Ptasznik, Academy of Agriculture and Technology, Olsztyn, Poland
849
Moisture Diffusivity in Osmotically Dehydrated Fruits
S.E. Bakalis, V.T. Karathanos, Z.B. Maroulis, D. Marinos-Kouris, and G.D. Saravacos, National Technical University, Athens, Greece
857
Density Shrinkage and Porosity of Some Vegetables during Air Drying
N.P. Zogzas, Z.B. Maroulis, D. Marinos-Kouris, and G.D. Saravacos, National Technical University, Athens, Greece
863
Air-Drying Kinetics of Osmotically Dehydrated Fruits
V.T. Karathanos, A. Reppa, and A.E. Kostaropoulus, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; G.D. Saravacos, National Technical University, Athens, Greece
871
Experimental Investigation of Different Solar Dryers Suitable for Fruit and Vegetable Drying
V.K. Sharma, A. Colangelo, and Giuseppe Spagna, Dipartimento Energia, Poliocoro, Italy
879
Drying of Black Pepper using Solar Energy
Kamaruddin Abdullah, Thamrin, and Frans Wenur, IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia
887
The Application of Heat Pump Dryers in the Australian Food Industry
Alan Wood and Peter Britnell, IFIQ, Brisbane, Australia; Scott Birchall, Steve Fitz-Payne, and Richard Mason, University of Queensland, Gatton, Australia; Gordon Young, DPI, Brisbane, Australia
897
Spray Drying of Food Liquids: Behavior for Sensitive Tracers in Polysaccharides and Milk
A. Senoussi, E. Dumouline, and A. Lebert, ENSIA-INRA, Massy, France; Z. Berk, Technion, Haifa, Israel
905
Study on Vertical Airflow Drying of Chili
Yingxu Li, Wang Hai, Lijiao Wang, Chengzhi Wang, Zang Hong, and Wang Qiang, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, P.R. China
913
Osmo-Convective Drying of Grapes in a Fluidized Bed of Sugar and Semolina
S. Grabowski, A.S. Mujumdar, and H.S. Ramaswamy, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; C. Strumillo, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
921
Improvement of Paddy Quality by Optimization of Drying Conditions
M.A. du Peuty, G. Arnoud, and J.P. Fohr, ENSMA, Poitiers, France; A. Themelin and J.F. Cruz, CIRAD-SAR, Montpellier, France
929
Convective Drying of Cocoa Beans: Drying Curves for Various External Conditions
P.J. Fotso, D. Lecomte, and J. Nganhou, Ecole Nationale Superieure Politechnique, Yaounde, Cameroun; L. Pomathios, IRA, Yaounde, Cameroun
937
The Effect of Disaccharide Addition on the Dehydration Inactivation of Lactobacillus Plantarum during Drying and the Importance of Water Activity
Leonie Linders, G.I.W. de Jong, G. Meerdink, K. van't Riet, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
945
The Research and Application on Heating Technique with Solid Fuel
Li Xiaoguang, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China
953
Drying of Sorghum by Immersion in a Heated Particulate Medium
N. Torrez, National University of Engineering, Managua, Nicaragua; Joaquin Martinez, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
961
Selectivity during Convective Drying of a Ternary Liquid Mixture
Fabio Luna, National University of Engineering, Managua, Nicaragua; Joaquin Martinez, Roya1 Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
969
Effect of Air Velocity on Cassava and Taro Drying Kinetics
Marco A. Salgado Cervantes, K.N. Waliszewski Kubiak, Medina J. de la Cruz and M.A. Alvarado Garcia, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
985
Effect of pH, Temperature and Sucrose Concentration on its Hydrolysis Rate during Osmotic Dehydration Process
Krzysztof N. Waliszewski Kubiak, M.A. Salgado Cervantes, H.D. Cortes Gonzalez, M.I. Romero Bello, and A.J. Sanchez Solis, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
985
Variation of Temperature during the Drying of Sulfuric Acid Solutions in Porous Media (Part 1&2)
Saadet Yapar, Serife S. Helvaci, and Sumer Peker, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
993
Heat Pump Fluidized Bed Drying of Biological Active Solutions
Ingvald Strommen, Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Kjell Josefsen and Kjartan Kramer, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway
1007
Nonadiabatic Heat Pump Fluidized Bed Drying of a Sticky Biological Material
Ola Jonassen, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway; Ingvald Strommen, Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway
1015
Evolution of the Technical Quality of Corn Kernels Submitted to Various Techniques of Drying at Different Operating Conditions
M. Mourad, M. Hemati, and C. Laguerie, ENSIGC, Toulouse, France
1023
Experimental Study on the Quality of Rough Rice Related to Drying Conditions
C. Bonazzi, F. Courtois, C. Geneste, and J.J. Bimbenet, INRA/ENSIA, Massy, FranceB. Pons, CIRAD-CA, Montpellier, France; M.C. Lahon, CIRAD-SAR, Montpellier, France
1031
Effect of Drying of Alfalfa Chop on Colour Preservation
R.T. Patil, S. Sokhansanj, and T. Larsen, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
1037
Modeling and Optimization of Alfalfa Pellet Coolers
Oladrian Fasina and Shahab Sokhansanj, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
1045
Analysis of the Kinetic and Equilibrium Equations in Soybean Drying
M.A.S. Barrozo, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil; D.J.M Sartori and J.T: Freire, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Brazil
1053
Drying Rate of Rough Rice in Dehumidifying Drying
Kazuo Morita, Shoji Taharazako, and Wei Chang Le, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
1061
A Diffusional Model with Shrinkage during Drying of Fish Muscles
L.A.A. Pinto, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Brazil; S. Tobinaga, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
1069
Drying Characteristics of Maize Hybrids' Components
Miklos Nemenyi, I. Czaba, and A. Kovacs, Pannon University, Mosonmagyarovar, Hungary; L Farkas, University of Agricultural Sciences, Godollo, Hungary
1077
Experimental Study of the Low Drying Temperature: Drying of Agricultural Products
Ben Mabrouk and A. Belghith, INRST, Tunis, Tunisia
1085
Drying Characteristics of Preheated Green Gram (Phaseolus Aureus)
R.P. Kachru and K.K. Singh, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, India
1093
Laboratory Drying of Adipic Acid in a Fluidised Bed
J.C. Vix, D. Steinmetz, and C. Laguerie, URA 192 CNRS, Toulouse, France; F. Vachet, Rhone Poulenc, Decines, France; J.P. Klein, LAGEP, Saint-Fons, France
1105
Thermal Drying of Biomaterials with Porous Carriers
C. Strumillo and I. Zbicinski, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; X.D. Liu, Tianjin Institute, Tianjin, China
1113
Drying of Oil Palm Kernels
Mahamad H. Ibrahim, University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia; Wan Ramli Wan Daud, and Meor Zainal Meor Talib, Universiti Kebangsaan, Selangor, Malaysia
1121
Drying of Cocoa Bean
Wan Ramli Wan Daud and Meor Zainal Meor Talib, University Kebangsaan, Selangor, Malaysia; Mahamad H. Ibrahim, University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
1129
Air Drying Kinetics of Leek
H. Akbaba and T. Cakaloz, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
1137
Section VII
PAPER
1145
Impingement Drying of Paper
W.J.M. Douglas, G. Chen, and V.G. Gomes, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
1147
Effect of Impingement Drying with Superheated Steam on Newsprint Properties
Pekka Malinen, Pasi Rajala, Kari Juppi, and Markku Karlsson, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaskyla, Finland
1155
Combined Convective and Conductive Drying of Paper
I.I. Pikulik and Nicole A. Poirier, Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Quebec, Canada
1163
Comparison of Several Multi-Cylinder Paper Drying Simulation Models
M.C. Asensio and J. Seyed-Yagoobi, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA; J.A. Lethinen, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; M.A. Karlsson, O.N. Timofeev, and K. Juppi, VTT Energy, Jyvaskyla, Finland
1171
Measurement of Reference Experimental Drying Data for the Multi-Cylinder Paper Dryer
Stig Stenstroem, Bjoern Wilhelmsson Lars Nilsson, Rikard Krook, and Roland Wimmerstedt, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
1179
Handling Methods and Cost Model for Pulp and Paper Industry Sludges
Kari Jaakkola and Ari Gronroos, Lappenranta University of Technology, Finland; Markku Karlsson and Saara Isannainen, VTT Energy, Jyvaskyla, Finland; Jaakko Paatero, Raisio Engineering, Raisio, Finland
1187
Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients in Computer Simulation of Paper Drying
Bjoern Wilhelmsson and Stig Stenstroem University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
1195
Transport Parameters and Shrinkage in Paper Drying
W.J. Coumans, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; W.M.A. Kruf, Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Delft, The Netherlands
1205
Modelling of Transformer Board Drying
M. El Bari, M. Rueff and M. Renaud, URA CNRS, Saint Martin, France; P. Francois, Jeumont Schneider Transformateurs, Lyon, France
1213
Influence of Sheet Structure and Process Conditions on Paper Drying
M. Rueff and F. Laloui, URA CNRS, Saint Martin, France
1221
Gas Diffusion through Sheets of Fibrous Porous Media
Lars Nilsson and Stig Stenstroem, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
1229
Temperature Effect on Paper Recycling
M.M. Nazhad and L. Paszner, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
1239
Effect of Dryer Fabric Design and Fabric-Related Parameters on Drying Intensity
Jouni Paltakari, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Markku Karlsson, VTT, Jyvaskyla, Finland
1247
Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Energy Efficiencies for a Gas Heated Infrared Paper Dryer
Stig Stenstroem and Michael Johansson, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
1255
Through Air Drying of Machine-Formed Printing Papers: Effects of Furnish and Formation
S.J. Hashemi, R.H. Crotogino, and W.J.M. Douglas, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
1263
Section VIII
SIMULATION
1271
The Drying Kinetics of an Impermeable Heartwood Board of Pinus Radiata at Elevated Temperatures
Pang Shusheng and R.B. Keey, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
1273
Mass Transfer from Wooden Surfaces and Internal Moisture Non-Equilibrium
Jarl-Gunnar Salin, Abo Academi University, Abo, Finland
1283
Experimental and Simulation Study on Drying of Food Gel
Kanathipan Buvanasundram, Nobumasa Mukai, Takao Tsukada, and Mitsunori Hozawa, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
1291
Simulation of Closed Cycle Drying of Solids Containing Liquid Mixtures
J. Martinez, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
1299
Analytical Prediction of Drying Time for Milled Peat
H.L. Fagan and T.E. Leinonen, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
1307
Numerical Calculations of Gas-Solid Flow in a Cyclone
M.A. Silva and Silvia A. Nebra, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
1319
Particle Transport in Flighted Rotary Dryers
F.Y. Wang, I.T. Cameron, J.D. Litster, and V. Rudolph, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
1327
Model Dependence of the Determination of Gas-Solid Mass Transfer Coefficients in Fluidized-Bed Dryers
Richard Ruiz and M.G. Vizcarra, Universidad Autonoma, Itzapalapa, Mexico
1335
Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Multiple Turbulent Impinging Jets
A.H. Shiravi, A.S. Mujumdar, and G.J. Kubes, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
1343
Simulation of Drying-Grinding Processes for Dispersed Materials
S.V. Fedosov, Chemical Technical Institute, Ivanovo, Russia
1351
Flow and Thermal Characteristics of Opposing Turbulent Jets
S.M. Hosseainalipour and Arun Mujumdar, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
1369
The Artificial Neural Networks and the Drying Process
Gheorghita Jinescu and V. Lavric, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Bucharest, Romania
1379
Some Aspects of the Drying Process with Variable Bed Height
Janos Beke and Zoltan G. Gal, University of Godollo, Godollo, Hungary
1387

Contributors' Index
1399