Proceedings of the Second International Symposium

Edited by Arun S. Mujumdar
McGill University, Montreal

CONTENTS

PREFACE ix
Section I.
DRYING THEORY AND FUNDAMENTALS
An Analysis of the Irreversible Thermodynamics Model for Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer in Unsaturated Porous Media
R.J. Parikh, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A., and J.A. Havens, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.
1
An Approximate Method for Determination of the Sublimation Limit in Simple Geometrical Porous Bodies
S. Lin and Y.Y. Lin, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; C.L. Wang, University of Regina, Regina, Sask., Canada
6
Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Drying: A Summary
M.J. Lampinen, Valmet Oy Pansio Works, Turku, Finland
11
Kinetics of Mass Transfer in a Capillary with Account for Movable Adsorbed Layers
O.G. Martynenko, V.V. Levdansky, and N.V. Pavlyukevich, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk, U.S.S.R.
17
A Theoretical Model for Solar-Dehumidification Drying of Wood
W.A. Helmer and S.W. Wang, Dept. of Thermal & Env. Eng., South. Ill. Univ., Carbondale, Illinois, U.S.A.; H.N. Rosen and P.Y.S. Chen, North Cent. For. Exp. Stn., USDA For. Serv., Carbondale, Illinois, U.S.A.
21
Modelling and Calculation of the Drying Process of Capillary Porous Materials
S. Szentgyorgyi, K. Molnar and M. Orvos, Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
29
Phenomenological Coefficients for Heat and Mass Transfer Equations in Wet Porous Media
M.A. Roques, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Nancy, France and A.R.H. Cornish, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England
36
Studies on the Drying Kinetics
R.Z. Tudose and Gh. Cristian, Polytechnic Institute, Jassy, Romania
43
The Thermokinetics of the Moisture Transport in Solids During Drying
J. Valcharova and J. Valchar, National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, Czechoslovakia
53
Characterising Moisture Bond in Materials with Respect to Drying Using the State Function Diagram
B. Cermak, National Research Institute for Machine Design, Czechoslovakia
61
Interdependence Between Heat and Mass Transfer in Drying
P.S. Kuts and I.F. Pikus, Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, BSSR Academy of Sciences, Minsk, USSR
65
Non-Steady-State Surface Evaporation from Porous Bodies with Non-Uniform Pore Distribution
S. Endrenyi, Refrigerating Works, Budapest-Jaszbereny, Hungary
80
Section II.
SIMULATION STUDIES
A Numerical Model of Heat and Mass Transport in Wood During Drying
G.A. Spolek and O.A. Plumb, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
84
A Mathematical Model for the Drying of Latex Films
N. Pramojaney and J.W. Vancerhoff, Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.; G.W. Poehlein, School of Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.
93
Search Methods Through Simulation for Parameter Optimization of Drying Process
R. Bertin and Z. Srour, G.R.A.I. Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence, France
101
Toward Automatic Control by Microprocessor for Convective Dryer Systems
C. Cazaubon, R. Bertin and M. Blazquez, GRAI, Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence, France
107
The Mathematical Model of Final Temperature Behaviour for Textile Materials in a Drying Chamber
J. Spirnek, Research and Development Centre of Automation and Instruments of Precision, Lodz, Poland
112
A Method of Determination of an Optimum Temperature Distribution along a Drying Chamber
I. Dziubinski, Technical University, Lodz, Poland and J. Spirnek, Research and Development Centre of Automation, Lodz, Poland
120
Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Vacuum Contact Drying of Porous Media in the Constant Rate Period
F. Strek and J. Nastaj, Technical University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
126
Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Vacuum Contact Drying of Porous Media in the Falling Rate Period (Boundary Condition of the First Kind)
F. Strek and J. Nastaj, Technical University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
135
Section III.
DRYING OF GRANULAR MATERIALS
Calculation of Heat Transfer on Vibrating Conveyors
D.U. Ringer, Technical University Munich, West Germany
144
Process Development of a Fluidized Drying Scheme for Nitrile Rubber
J.P. Lenczyk, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, U.S.A. and C.R. Sarkar, B.F. Goodrich Chemical Co., Avon Lake, Ohio, U.S.A.
152
Energy Use in Paddle Dryers
William L. Root, III and Edward M. Cook, Stork Bowen Engineering Inc., Somerville, N.J., U.S.A.
158
Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in a Packed Bed of Fine Particles with an Endothermic Process
M. Hasatani and N. Arai, Nagoya University, Nagoya
163
Drying Some Objects in Fluidized Bed Under Reduced Pressure
K. Yamamoto and Y. Kawamura, University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
170
Drying Characteristics of Tea Fluidised on a Vibrating Bed (Part - I)
Rohit M. Shah and Suresh K. Goyel, Macneill & Magor Limited, Bombay, India
176
Theoretical Investigation of Drying Conditions of the Fluidized Bed Granulation
T. Vajda, Research Institute for Technical Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
182
Analysis of the Role of a Microwaves Energy Contribution in Drying Porous Media
A. Le Pourhiet, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Toulouse, Toulouse, France and S. Bories, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, Toulouse, France
186
Mechanism of the Vapour Transfer in a Moist Granular Bed Under a Temperature Gradient
M. Kuramae, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
195
Drying of Granular Materials in a Vibrated Fluidized Bed
R. Gupta, P. Leung and A.S. Mujumdar, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
201
The Influence of Aerodynamics of a Vibrated Fluid Bed on Heat Transfer During Drying Process at Low Air Velocities
Z. Pakowski and C. Strumillo, Lodz Technical University, Lodz, Poland
208
Hydrodynamic Characteristic of Pneumatic Flash Dryers
A. Kmiec and S. Mielczarski, Inst. Chem. Eng. Technical University of Wroclaw, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Poland
213
Heat and Mass Transfer in Packed Beds
M. Parti, Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
219
Section IV.
DRYING OF FOODSTUFFS AND GRAINS
Rates for Freeze Drying
A.I. Liapis, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri, U.S.A.
224
Prediction of Heat and Mass Transfer Within a Grain Kernel - A Finite Element Application
Shahab Sokhansanj, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada, and R.J. Gustafson, University of Minnesota, St. Paul Minnesota, U.S.A.
229
Concentration Dependent Diffusion Coefficients Derived From Experimental Drying Curves
K.Ch.A.M. Luyben, J.J. Olieman and S. Bruin, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
233
Continuous Vacuum Drying for Highly Viscous and Heat Sensitive Foods
E. Kumazawa, Y. Saiki, Y. Ishioka, S. Taneya, and H. Hayashi, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan
244
Kinetics of Soybean Drying
C. Suarez, P. Viollaz and J. Chirife, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
251
Pararoeters Required in the Analysis of Rough Rice Drying
J.F. Steffe, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. and R.P. Singh, University of California, Davis, California, U.S.A.
256
Concurrent Flow Drying of Food Grains
R.C. Brook and F.W. Bakker-Arkema, Michigan State University, E Michigan, U.S.A.
263
Lansing,
A Study of the Heat Transfer Parameters for Drying by Immersion in a Heated Granular Media
P. Richard and G.S.V. Raghavan, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
272
Drying Characteristics of Parboiled Rice
A.S. Bakshi, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. and R. Paul Singh, University of California, Davis, California, U.S.A.
282
Drying of Heavily Salted Codfish
Ingvald Strocen, The Technical University of Norway, Trondheim, Norway
289
Drying and Cooling Properties of Milk Powder by Using a Fluidized Bed
H. Hayashi and T. Wada, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd. Saitama, Japan
294
Section V.
DRYING OF PULP AND PAPER
Steam Drying of Pulp
Claes Svensson, MoDo-Chemetics AB, Ornskoldsvik, Sweden
301
Airfoil Dryer: Principles of Operation and Application
R.A. Bennett, Overly Inc., Neenah, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
308
A Mathematical Model of the Contact Drying Process
M. Soininen, Abok Akademi, Turku, Finland
315
Results from On-Line Investigations of Paper Contact Drying Process
M. Karlsson, Abo Akademi, Turku, Finland
322
A Literature Review of Drying Research in the Pulp and Paper Industry
R.R. McConnell, The Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, WI, U.S.A.
330
Improvement of Moisture Profile on Paper Machines by RF Compensating Drying
H.C. Grassmann, Siemens AG Manufacturing Division, Erlangen, West Germany
338
Challenges of Drying the Printed Web
N.R. Eldred and T.A. Fadner, Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.
343
A New Vacuum-Drying Method for Paper, Board and Other Permeable Mats
J.A. Lehtinen, Tampella Engineering Works, Tampere, Finland
347
New CD Moisture Profile Correction Hood Reduces Energy Consumption and Production Costs in High Speed Tissue Drying
H. Holik, Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg, F.R.G. and R. Pinter, Maschinenfabrik Andritz, Graz, Austria
355
Energy Consumption and Drying Costs in High Speed Tissue Drying
R. Pinter, Maschinenfabrik Andritz, Graz, Austria and H. Holik, Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg, F.R.G.
362
The Effect of Air Flow on Heat Consumption in Contact Dryer
A. Strawinski, The Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
369
Section VI.
ENERGY ASPECTS
System of Drying Plaster Blocks Using a Heat Pump
R. Gauthier, R. Legoff and C. Bassac, Electricite de France - Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Moret-sur-Loing, France
374
Energy Saving in Dryers
K. Richardt, ANHYDRO A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark
379
Preconcentration of GThey: Results from Use of an Evaporator Equipped with Mechanical Recompression of Steam
G. Deschamps, A. Gauthier and R. Legoff, E.D.F. Etudes et Recherches - Centre des Renardieres, S/Loing, France
387
Approaches to More Economical Drying of Particles and Lumps
O.E. Potter, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
396
Section VII.
SPRAY DRYING
Spray Drying in Environmental Control with Special Reference to Flue Gas Desulphurization
K. Masters, A/S Niro Atomizer, Denmark
401
Mathematical Model of Spray Drying Reckoning with Droplet Size Distribution,
J. Topar, Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
405
Assessment of Numerical Models for Spray-Drying
G. Arnason and C.T. Crowe, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.
410
Effect of Vane Geometry on Droplet Size and Size Distribution in Spray Dryer
I. Filkova and J. Weberschinke, CVUT, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Praha Czechoslovakia
417
Section VIII.
DRYING OF COAL
The Kinetic Behavior of Subbituminous Coal Drying; Effects of Confining Pressure
L.F. Brown, B.A. Kashiwa, N.E. Vanderborgh, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, U.S.A., and R.C. Corlett, University of Washington, Seattle, WA., U.S.A.
425
Studies on Lignite Drying
B. Kisakurek, McGill University, Quebec, Canada and S. Yesil, Middle East Technical University, Turkey
434
Section IX.
SOLAR DRYING
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Solar Grain Drying and Its Policy Implications
O.Y. Kwon and P.J. Catania, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
443
Digital Simulation of a Solar Hay-Drying System
L. Imre, L. Kiss, T. Kornyey and K. Molnar, Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
446
A Simulation Model for Convective Solar Drying
C.L. Gupta and T.A. Reddy, Tata Energy Research Institute, Pondicherry, India
453
Section X.
NONTHERMAL METHODS
Rejection of Suspending Liquid from Fine Particles by Agglomeration Methods
C.E. Capes, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and R.J. Germain, The Steel Company of Canada, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
460
Displacement Drying with Fluorocarbon Solvents: A Status Report
T. Devine, Du Pont de Nemours International S.A., Geneva, Switzerland
467
Section XI.
GENERAL TOPICS
The Removal of Solvent from Nitrocellulose/Nitroglycerine Mixtures
R.P. Ayerst, Propellants, Explosive and Rocket Motor Establishment, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England
472
Thermal Degradation of Pyrethrins During Drying of Pyrethrum Flowers
P.M. Githinji, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
478
Drying Since the Millenniums
K. Kroll, Bad Hersfeld, F.R. Germany; A.S. Mujumdar and A.S. Menon, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
485
Energy Management for Drying Systems by a Computer-Based Decision Aid
M.H. Waller, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, U.S.A. and S.C. Curtis, Raytheon Company, Nozwood, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
495
Psychrometrics as the Thermodynamics of Moist Air
John A. Goff, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
500
Use of Simulation Techniques to Evaluate Strategies for Improvement of Industrial Multizone Through-Circulation Trolley Dryer
J.C. Ashworth, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England and M.C. Hill, Foseco International Ltd., Birmingham, England
508
Measurements of Heat and Mass Transport Within a Sheet of Papermaking Fibers During Drying
P. Lee and J. Hinds, Weyerhaeuser Technology Center, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A.
523
AUTHOR INDEX 529
SUBJECT INDEX 531