PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL DRYING SYMPOSIUM

Kyoto International Conference Hall, Kyoto, Japan, July 9 -12, 1984

CONTENTS

Preface ix
Nomenclature xi
Keynote lectures
Opportunities for Fundamental Research in Drying
C.W. Hall, USA
1
Non-Kinetic Limits to Drying
R.B. Keey, New Zealand
11
Short-Cut Calculation of Non-Isothermal Drying Rates of Shrinking and Non-Shrinking Particles and of Particles Containing An Expanding Gas Phase
H.A.C. Thijssen and W.J. Coumans, Netherlands
22
Moisture Transport Mechanisms During The Drying of Granular Porous Media
S. Whitaker, USA
31
Aspects of Solar Drying
L. Imre, Hungary
43
Steam Drying
C. Beeby and O.E. Potter, Australia
51
Control of Food-Quality Factors in Spray Drying
C.J. King, USA
69
Modelling Continuous Convection Dryers for Particulate Solids - Progress and Problems
D. Reay, England
77
Vacuum Contact Drying of Free Flowing Mechanically Agitated Particulate Material
E.U. Schlunder, FRG
85
Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Heterogeneous Materials
M. Okazaki, Japan
94
Session A:
DRYING THEORY AND MODELLING
Influence of Surface Active Agents on The Drying Rate of Solids
M. Loncin, T. Roth and C. Bornhardt, FRG
107
Theory of Constant-Rate Expression and Subsequent Relaxation
P.J. Banks, Australia
112
Importance of Gas Phase Momentum Equation in Drying Above The Boiling Point of Water
C. Moyne and A. Degiovanni, France
119
An Analysis of Drying Rate Mechanism in Complex Solids
G. Ergun, T.G. Somer and B. Kisakurek, Turkey
127
Convective Drying of Porous Materials Containing Binary Mixtures
F. Thurner and E.U. Schlunder, FRG
133
The Mathematical Modelling of Drying Process Based on Moisture Transfer Mechanism
Z. Przesmycki and C. Strumillo, Poland
142
Numerical Modelling of The Drying of Porous Materials
G.R. Hadley, USA
151
Experimental and Numerical Study of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Materials
S. Bories, G. Bacon and M. Recan, France
159
Mathematical Modelling of Wood Drying From Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals
M.A. Stanish, G.S. Schajer and F. Kayihan, USA
165
Modelling of Contact Drying of Sheet
S. Palosaari and J. Riikonen, Finland
173
Stochastic Modelling of Lumber Drying in Batch Kilns
F. Kayihan, USA
180
Theoretical Prediction of Moisture Transfer by Convective Drying for a Flat Plate
V. Strongin and I. Borde, Israel
188
Sensitivity Analysis of Thompson'S Deep Bed Drying Simulation Model
M. Kulshreshtha, D.K. Gupta and B.P.N. Singh, India
195
The Mathematical Mudelling of Cocurrent Spray Drying
Y. Wu, J. Fu and C. Zheng, China
200
The Analytic Solution of The Two-Dimensional Decelerating Movement of Droplet in Spray Drying
C. Xia, China
208
Drying of Paper Board on a Yankee Dryer, And The Effect of The Predryer Section, on The Drying Process
P. Heikkila and M. Karlsson, Finland
216
Session B:
DRYING OF GRANULAR SOLIDS
Particle Velocities in Pneumatic Conveying Dryers
D. Reay and R.E. Bahu, England
222
Drying of Granular Particles in a Multistage Inclined Fluidized Bed With Mechanical Vibration
M. Hasatani, N. Arai and K. Hori, Japan
228
Factors Causing Nonuniform Air Flow Through Conical Shaped Granular Beds
A.H. Zahed, R.P. Singh and T.R. Rumsey, USA
236
Combined Heat and Mass Transfer During Drying of Molecular Sieve Pellets
J. Schadl and A. Mersmann, FRG
241
Air Drying Kinetics of Biological Particles
J.J. Bimbenet, J.D. Daudin and E. Wolff, France
249
Simulation of The Veneer Drying Process
J.G. Salin, Finland
257
Computer Simulation of a Minton Dryer
J.A. Hinds, N.R. Jackson and A.H. Neogi, USA
261
The Free Draw of a Homogeneous Shbet Between Two Rotating Cylinders
M. Soininen, Finland
266
Convective Heat Transfer Under Turbulent Impinging Siot Jet at Large Temperature Differences
D. Das, W.J.M. Douglas and R.H. Crotogino, Canada
273
Session D:
DRYING OF FOODSTUFFS
Pundamentals of Drying of Foodstuffs
G.H. Crapiste, Argentina, S. Whitaker, USA and E. Rotstein, Arqentina
279
Sorptional Equilibrium at Changing Temperatures
G.H. Crapiste and E. Rotstein, Arqentina
285
Diffusion Model Applied to Pasta Drying Kinetics
J. Andrieu and A. Stamatopoulos, France
290
Advances in Optimization of Food Dehydration With Respect to Quality Retention
M. Karel, I. Saguy and M.A. Mishkin, USA
295
Drying of Foods With Flue Gas From Natural Gas Risk/Benefit
K.P. Poulsen and J. Rubin, Denmark
300
Acoustic Dewatering and Drying: State of The Art Review
H.S. Muralidhara and D. Ensminger, USA
304
Drying Heat Sensitive Products
R.L. Upadhyaya and A. Kilara, USA
316
Over-All Drying-Rate Equations of Foodstuffs
K. Kubota, K. Suzuki, M. Esaka, H. Araki and M. Nagai, Japan
322
Enzyme Inactivation During Drying of a Single Droplet
S. Yamamoto, M. Agawa, H. Nakano and Y. Sano, Japan
328
Flavour Retention on Drying of a Single Droplet Under Various Drying Conditions
T. Furuta, M. Okazaki and R. Toei, Japan
336
Belt Type Foam Mat Dryers
J. Uno and N. Kobayashi, Japan
343
Session E:
SPRAY DRYING
Foam Spray Drying: Efficiency of Energy Utilization
M. Okazaki, Japan and E.J. Crosby, USA
347
Effect of Droplet Size on The Properties of Spray-Dried Whole Milk
T.H.M. Snoeren, A.J. Damman, H.J. Klok and P.J.J.M. van Mil, Netherlands
358
Integrated Fluid Bed Spray Dryers - a New Design Concept
N. Ashizawa and K. Masters, Japan
364
An Assessment of Steam Operated Spray Dryers
C.T. Crowe, L.C. Chow and J.N. Chung, USA
369
Some Effects of Liquid Atomization on Distribution of Droplets in a Spray Drier
J. Weberschinke, V. Vacek and Z. Halounova, Czechoslovakia
378
Spray Drying Characteristics by a Centrifugal Pressure Nozzle With Large Orifice Diameter
H. Hayashi and S. Takeda, Japan
384
Drying of Slurries of Fine Clayey Particles by a Spray Dryer and Utilization of Spray-Dried Particles
H. Hirosue, N. Yamada and E. Abe, Japan
389
Volatile Loss in Spray Drying
S. Tsujimoto, M. Nishikawa, T. Furuta, M. Okazaki and R. Toei, Japan
397
Multi-Stage Spray Drying Method in Manufacturing Heavy Duty Detergents
M. Nakamura and S. Toyoda, Japan
403
Session F:
VACUUM AND FREEZE DRYING
Application of Optimal Control Strategy to Hybrid Microwave and Radient Heat Freeze Drying System
T.N. Chang and Y.H. Ma, USA
410
A One-Dimensional Approach for Solving Sublimation Processes in Porous Cubes and Long Square Bars
S. Lin, C.C.K. Kwok, P.M. Lee and J.C.Y. Wang, Canada
415
A Modified Moving Boundary Model for Freeze-Dryers
B. Kisakurek and H. Celiker, Turkey
420
Spray & Freeze Drying of Coffee Extract
S. Barnett, USA
425
Characteristics of Vibro-Fluidized Bed Freeze Drying
K. Suzuki, M. Ikeda, M. Esaka and K. Kubota, Japan
433
Studies on The Drying of Pharmaceutical Granules in a Vacuum Tray Dryer, to Optimise The Drying and Bed Conditions and to Correlate The Drying Data
A. Nanda and A. Hossain, India
439
Freeze Drying Characteristics and Transport Properties in Concentrated Coffee Solution System
Y. Sagara, Japan
443
Freeze-Drying Mechanisms and Drying Rates Under Various Drying Conditions
M. Asaeda and M. Hara, Japan
451
Freeze-Drying of Concentrated Liquid Foods by Back-Face Heating
H. Kumagai, K. Nakamura and T. Yano, Japan
458
Development of New Refrigeration System and Optimum Geometry of The Vapor Condenser for Pharmaceutical Freeze Dryers
M. Kobayashi, Japan
464
Defrosting of Internal Vapor Condenser During Final Drying and Its Application to Food Production Freeze Dryers
M. Kobayashi, Japan
472
Vacuum Drying of Maltodextrin Aqueous Solution With Ethanol in Foamed State
E. Kumazawa, K. Ido, M. Okazaki and R. Toei, Japan
480
Session G:
CONDUCTIVE DRYING
Indirect Heating of Solid Particles
S. Abe and T. Akao, Japan
487
Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Heating Wall and Agitated Granular Bed
R. Toei, T. Ohmori, T. Furuta and M. Okazaki, Japan
495
Heat Transfer From Submerged Body Moving in Granular Bed
R. Toei, T. Ohmori and M. Okazaki, Japan
501
Session H:
DRYING OF AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS
Detection of Lumber Checking During Drying by Means of Acoustic Emission Technique
S. Ogino, K. Kaino and M. Suzuki, Japan
507
Grain Drying Simulation by The Sphere Drying Model
Y. Nishiyama, Japan
513
Drying of Crop Products With a Shell: Experiniental Approach and Modelling. Its Application to Hazelnuts
J.C. Batsale and J.R. Puiggali, France
520
Removing Hexane From Rapeseed Meals
M. Roques, M. Naiha and J. Briffaud, France
525
Drying of Pyrethrum Flowers - II
P.M. Githinji, Kenya
530
The Heat Treatment of Rice Husk by Roto-Louvre Dryer for Increasing Grindability
C.C. Chen and S.S. Shaw, Taiwan, China
534
Industrial Applications for New Steam Drying Process in Forest and Agricultural Industry
C. Svenson, Sweden
541
Drying of Long Grains
R. Thahir, K. Abdullah, Indonesia and Y. Nishiyama, Japan
546
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Batch Drying of Wheat in Spouted Beds
K. Viswanathan, M.S. Lyall, K.S. Negi and B.C. Raychaudhury, India
552
Computer Control of a High Temperature Alfalfa Dryer-Instrumentation and Performance
S. Sokhansanj, H. Wood, D. Pulkinen and D. Singh, Canada
559
Simulation of Parboiled-Rice Drying in a Concurrent Flow Rotary Drier
P.K. Chandra and R.P. Singh, USA
565
Energy Savings in Grain Drying - A Thermodynamic Evaluation
K. Kato, Japan
571
Optimal Drying Conditions of Grains
R.Ouhab and A. Le Pourhiet, France
579
Temporary Storage With Mixing Method in Paddy Drying Facilities
R.Yamashita and K. Goto, Japan
585
Through Flow Drying Characteristics of Some Thai Fruits
W. Tanthapanichakoon and T. Loychirakul, Thailand
591
Thin-Layer Drying and Rewetting Models to Predict Moisture Diffusion in Spherical Agricultural Products
O.A. Filho, Brazil and T.R. Rumsey, USA
597
Thin-Layer Drying of Paddy
B.P.N. Singh, M. Narain and R. Srivastava, India
601
Air-Grain Heat Transfer in a Fixed Bed of Paddy
R. Srivastava, B.P.N. Singh and M. Narain, India
606
The Effect of Drying Conditions on The Yield and Composition of The Essential Oil of West Indian Ginger
D.R. McGaw, I. Chang Yen and V. Dyal, Trinidad-Tobago
612
The Optimisation of Batch Operated Packed Bed Driers for The Drying of Tropical Agricultural Products
D.R. McGaw, H. Farabi and J. Jairam, Trinidad-Tobago
616
Studies on Drying of Silkworm Cocoons
S. Chen, China
620
Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer During Through-Drying Process of Rough Rice
T. Kameoka, A. Hosokawa and H. Morishima, Japan
625
Properties of Brown Rice Kernel for Calculation of Drying Stresses
S. Yamaguchi, K. Wakabayashi and S. Yamazawa, Japan
633
Change of Cracked Rice Percentage and Internal Stress of Brown Rice Kernels During Drying Operation
S. Yamaguchi, K. Wakabayashi and S. Yamazawa, Japan
640
Session I:
DRYING OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS
Coupled Drying and Devolatilization of Low Rank Coals in Fluidized Beds: An Experimental and Theoretical Study
P.K. Agarwal, W.E. Genetti and Y.Y. Lee, USA
648
A New Fluidized Bed Dryer for Amorphous Slag
T. Moriyama, H. Itaya and A. Nakamura, Japan
656
High Temperature Convective Drying of Softwood and Hardwood: Drying Kinetics and Product Quality Interactions
C. Moyne and C. Basilico, France
662
Corrosion Studies in Pressure Steam Drying of Lumber
M. de Chazal, P.C. Leung, H.N. Rosen and E.A. McGinnes, USA
668
Upgrading of Low-Grade Coals by Heat Treatment
K. Taoda, Y. Ito, S. Uehara, F. Sato and T. Kumagaya, Japan
674
Session J:
INDUSTRIAL DRYING SYSTEMS
Single Tube Heat Transfer in Aerated Vibrated Beds
K. Malhotra and A.S. Mujumdar, Canada
681
Experimental Investigation on The Drying of Plywood in Fluidized Bed
X.Z. Wu, China
690
Drying of Slurry in Bed of Particles Fluidized by Pure Water Vapor
N. Takahashi, Y. Satoh, T. Itoh, T. Kojima, T. Koya, T. Furusawa and D. Kunii, Japan
693
Dimensioning Heat Pump Driers for Fish Products
O.M. Magnussen, I. Strommen and S. Puntervold, Norway
701
The Application of Microprocessor Technology to Automatic Control of Textile Drying Processes
G.V. Barker and J.H. Christie, New Zealand
707
Feasibility Study on Dehumidification of Air by Thin Porous Alumina Gel Membrane
M. Asaeda, L.D. Du and M. Ushijima, Japan
712
Experimental Study on Application of Paddle Dryers for Sludge Cake Drying
Y. Yamahata, H. Izawa and K. Hasama, Japan
719
Dewatering and Utilization of High Moisture Brown Coal
T. Kamei, F. Ono, K. Komai, T. Wakabayashi and H. Itoh, Japan
725
The New Moisture Control Methods at a Cylindrical Dryer
Y. Nambu, Japan
732
Energy Saving Effect in The Drying Process of Light Calcium Carbonate
H. Niwa and T. Yokoyama, Japan
735
Session K:
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Optimization of Heat Pump Dehumidifier
C. Strumillo and R. Zylla, Poland
739
Solar Dehumidified Air for Low Temperature Drying Systems
P. Gandhidasan, Trinidad-Tobago
748
Energy Optimal Temperature Differences in Heat Pump Driers
I. Strommen, Norway
753
Control and Energy Aspects of Milk Powder Spray-Drying in Relation to Product Quality
G.H. Niels, L.A. Jansen and A.J.B. van Boxtel, the Netherlands
759
Session L:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES RELATED TO DRYING
A New Measurement Method of Liquid Transport Properties
I. Shishido, M. Suzuki and S. Ohtani, Japan
764
Determination of Concentration Dependent Diffusion Coefficient From Drying Rates
S. Yamamoto, M. Hoshika and Y. Sano, Japan
769
Effect of Drying Condition on Structure of Dried Product
K. Mochizuki, H. Shinagawa and Y. Kawamura, Japan
777
The Effect of Internals Upon The Lateral Solid Mixing and The Drying Characteristics in a Fluidized Bed
K. Kato, Y. Sato, D. Taneda, S. Omura, K. Nishi and T. Hanzawa, Japan
782
Bulk Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Grain Rice by New Fast Method
S. Oshita, Japan
790
On The Vapour Transfer Rate in Porous Media Under a Temperature Gradient
M. Kuramae, Japan
797
Behavior of Inversion Point Temperature and New Applications of Superheated Vapor Drying
T. Nomura and T. Hyodo, Japan
804
Session M:
HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES
Roasting of a Siderite Ore in a Batch Fluidised Bed Reactor
M.Z.A. Ebrahim, Egypt and C. and C. Laquarie, France
810
Spout-Whirl Preheater and Analysis of Flow Profiles in its Rotational Flow Space
D.H. Hu and D.L. Xu, China
817