SIXTH INTERNATIONAL DRYING SYMPOSIUM IDS'88

VERSAILLES (France)
September 1988

Volume I. Keynote Lectures
Oral Presentations
Chairmen: Prof M.A. ROQUES. ENSIC-INPL (Nancy - France)
Prof A.S. MUJUMDAR. (Montreal, Canada) Mc Gill University

CONTENTS


KEYNOTE LECTURES
KL
Fluid flow, residence time simulation and energy efficiency in industrial dryers
D. REAY, Head of S.P.S. Harwell Laboratory, Harwell, England
1
Selective drying of mixture-containing products
E.U. SCHLUNDER Dr. Dr.h.c. INPL, Universitat Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
9
The role of irreversible thermodynamics and the Onsager relations in the analysis of drying phenomena
S. WHTTAKER, Professor, University of California, Davis, U.S.A.
25
Considerations in drying consumer products
L.R. GENSKOW, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, U.S.A.
39
Recent advances in modelisation of coupled heat and mass transfer in capillary-porous bodies
S. BORIES, Directeur de Recherche CNRS, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, Toulouse, France
47
Prediction of equilibrium and transport properties in cellular foods
E. ROTSTEIN, Professor, Chem. Eng. Dpt, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, U.S.A.
63
Combined fields dewatering techniques
H.S. MURALIDHARA, Senior Research Scientist, Battelle, Colombus, U.S.A.
71

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

OP

1. Fluid Beds
Fluidized drying of polypropylene powder
AGGARWAL R and DATTA A., R&D Department, Engineers India Ltd., New Delhi, India
1
Selective drying in fluidized beds
SCHWARZBACH J. and SCHLUNDER E.U., Institut fur Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
7
Fluidized bed drying of phosphate ores in an electromagneic field
ZAKARIA A.W., Dpt of Chem. Eng., University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
15
Particle flow patterns in a mechanically stirred two-dimensional cylindrical vessel
MALHOTRA K., MUJUMDAR A.S., Dpt of Chem. Eng., McGill University, Montreal, Canada and OKAZAKI M., Dept. of Chem. Eng., Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
23
Studies on the drying of some pharmaceutically important basic ingredient and formulation granules in a batch fluid-bed dryer and to correlate the drying data
NANDA A., BASU K. and GUHATHAKURTA S., Div.of Pharm. Eng., Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India
33

2. Solar Drying
Solar assisted dryer for seeds
IMRE L., FABRI L., GEMES L., and HECKER G., Technical University, Budapest, Hungary
39
Simulation of the field drying of hay
TUZET A., INRA, Thiverval-Grignon, France
43
Simulation and validation of a solar drying lumber model
PALLE'T D., Ceemat-Cirad, CTST-Cirad, IMP-Perpignan, France
49
Specific energy consumptions in grain-drying using solar energy
PFYRE A., LALAU F. and HAROUNA I., E.N.S.A., Toulouse, France
55
General behaviour of solar cabinet dryers
COLLIGNAN A. and PUIGGALI J.R., E.N.S.A.M., Talence, Prance
63

3. Thermophysical Properties
Identification of water apparent diffusivities for drying of corn based extruded pasta
ANDRIEU J., JALLUT C. and ZAFIROPOULOS M., U.C.B. Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France, and STAMATOPOULOS A., Nestec S.A., Orbe, Switzerland
71
Estimation of effective thermal conductivity of rice in bulk
OSHITA S.I. and NAKAGAWA K., Mie Univ., Tsu-Shi, Japan
77
Thermal conductivity of wet porous media: theoretical analysis end experimental measurements
MOYNE Ch., AZIZI S., DEGIOVANNI A., LEMTA, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France
85
Fast measurement of the hygrothermal properties of a porous material under hygroscopic conditions
BASTIAN G., E.N.S.M., Nantes, France
93
Moisture transfer coefficients of wood and wood-based panels
KOPONEN H., Helsinki Univ., Helsinki, Finland
99

4. Spouted Beds
Drying liquid materials in spouted beds
BARRETT N., Davis Gelatine Ltd, Botany, Australia and FANE A.G., Univ. of N.S.W., Kensington, Australia
107
Drying of solutions and suspensions in spouted beds
SCHNEIDER T. and BRIDGWATER J., Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
113
Drying of pastelike materials in spouted bed
RE M.I., Cefer-Ipt, Sao Paulo, Brazil and FREIRE T., Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Brazil
119
Spouting and spout-fluidization of dry/wet particles in a two dimensional bed
PASSOS M.L., MUJUMDAR A.S. and RAGHAVAN G.S.V., Mc Gill Univ., Montreal, Canada
127
Resistance of rough rice to airflow and other studies in spouted bed dryers
ALVES-FII.HO O., Escola Sup. de Agricultura de Lavras, Lavras, Brazil
137

5. Drying Kinetics: General Aspects
The calculation of moisture distribution in a drying process
SILVA M.A. and NEBRA S.A., DE/FEC/UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil
145
Validity of drying kinetics
FOHR J.P., ARNAUD G., ALI MOHAMED A. and BEN MOUSSA H., Laboratoire d'Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetique, Poitiers, France
151
Equipment and methods of thin-layer drying - a review
SOKHANSANJ S. and CENKOWSKI S., Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
159
Study on intermittent drying of rough rice in a recirculation dryer
TOYODA K., Kobe Univ., Kobe, Japan
171
A short-cut method for the calculation of isothermal drying rates for slabs of non-hygroscopic porous materials
YOSHIDA M., IMAKOMA H. and OKAZAKI M., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan
179

6. Infrared and Microwave Drying
Acceleration of white ware ceramics drying rates using hot air and microwaves
VOUILLEMET M., Ste Francaise de la Ceramique, Paris, France and MARCHAND M., EDF-ADE, Moret/Loing, France
189
An analysis of the efficiency of a radiative dryer
LAMPINEN M.J. and SIEVANEN M., Univ. of Helsinki, Espoo, Finland
195
Relation of the microwave drying kinetic and the contraction of porous materials
SADEGHI M., LEFEUVRE S., BAHMAN Z.Z., ENSEEI H.T., Toulouse, France, HAMRI M., Univ. of Rabat, Morocco and OKTAY A., Uludag Univ., Bursa, Turkey
203
Development of an equipment for combinational microwave and hot air agglomerating drying for food powders
SZABO G., Univ. of Food Ind., Szeged, Hungary and DORNYEY J., Compack Company, Budapest, Hungary
209
Infrared tunnel dryer: a kinetics study
NADEAU J.P., PUIGGALI J.R., AREGBA W., QUINTARD M., ENSAM, Talence, France
217

7. Rotary and Drum Dryers
An approach to automation of rotary drum driers. Comparative study of industrial applications
RICHARD A., TOMCZAK M., AUBRUN M. and RONAT E., Centre de Recherche en Automatique, Vandoeuvre, France
225
Heat transfer in cascading rotary dryers
LANGRISH T.A.G., WHALLEY P.B., Univ.of Oxford, and REAY D. and BAHU R.E., Harwell Laboratory, Didcot
223
Analysis of volumetric heat transfer coefficient and simulation of particles drying in a rotary dryer
HIROSUE H., YAMADA N., ABE E., Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Tosu, Japan and SHINOHARA H., Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, Japan
241
A model for the rotary drying of granular fertilizers
BRASIL G.C. and SECKLER M.M., CEFER, Sao Paulo, Brazil
247
Kinetics of moisture sorption in a mixture of heated granular zeolite and grain
ALIKHANI Z., RAGHAVAN G.S.V. and MUJUMDAR A.S., Mc Gill Univ., Montreal, Canada
257

8. Drying Kinetics: Models
Experimental and numerical study of drying. Compared behaviours of two building materials
DAIAN J.F. and MEROUANI L., Institut de Mecanique, St Martin d'Heres, France
263
Marangoni convection in porous solids. Effect on pervaporation and drying
SCHWARZBACH J. and SCHLUNDER E.U., Institut fur Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
271
A model of drying applied to softwoods: the effect of gaseous pressure below the boiling point
PERRE P., FOHR J.P., ARNAUD G., Laboratoire des Systemes Energetiques et Thermiques, Poitiers, France
279
An integral model for convective drying of hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic materials
CHEN P. and SCHMIDT P.S., Univ. of Texas, Austin, U.S.A.
287
A simplified study of moisture transport and shrinkage in wood
LARTIGUE C., PUIGGALI J.R. and QUINTARD M., ENSAM, Talence, France
295

9. Steam Drying
Some design aspects of steam-fluidized heated dryers
POTTER O.E., GUANG L.X.,GEORGAKOPOULOS S. and MING M.Q., Monash Univ., Clayton, Australia
307
Natural convection and interfacial phenomena in the evaporation of superheated water
YANG C.J., MAA J.R. and YANG Y.M., National Cheng Kung Univ. Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
315
Superheated steam drying of porous particles in a packed bed
KHAN J.A., ALATAS B. and BEASLEY D.E., Clemson Univ., Clemson, U.S.A.
321
High temperature drying of wood. Semi-industrial dryer experiments
BASILICO C., MARTIN M., LEMTA, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France
329
The thermal dehydration of pulp in a large-scale steam dryer
BOSSE D. and VALENTIN P., Suddeutsche Zucker AG, Mannheim, F.RG.
337

10. Spray Drying and Drops: A
Factors governing temperature and humidity fields in spray drying
PAPADAKIS S.E. and KING C.J., Univ. of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.
345
Numerical prediction of spray dryer performance
FILKOVA I., Czech. Techn. Univ., Prague, Czechoslovakia
353
The experimental study of power consumption in centrifugal spray drying process
XU J.X. and WU S.J., Tongji Univ., Shanghai, China
357
An experimental study on evaporation rate into a superheated steam using laser holographic interferometry
NOMURA T., NISHIMURA N., and HYODO T., Osaka City Univ., Osaka, Japan, and KASHIWAGI T., Univ.of Agriculture and Techn., Tokyo, Japan.
365
The aerodynamics of co-current spray dryers
OAKLEY D., BAHU R. and REAY D., Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire, England
373

11. Drying Kinetics: Deformable Materials
Effective thermal and moisture diffusivities of granular starches
SARAVACOS G. and MAROUSIS S., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, U.S.A. and DROUZAS A., National Techn. Univ., Athens, Greece, and KOSTAROPOULOS A., Paseges, Athens, Greece
379
Effect of shrinkage on drying behaviour of potato slabs
SUAREZ C. and VIOLLAZ P.E., F.C.E.y N., Buneos Aires, Argentina
385
Shrinkage during drying and devolatilization of wet coal
WILDEGGER-GAISSMAIER A.E. and AGARWAL P.K., Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
391
Drying of natural rubber: morphology and internal transfer of water
AURIA R., Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, BENET J.C. and COUSIN B., USTL, Montpellier, France
397
Variable diffusivity model for drying of highly deformable materials
KECHAOU N. and ROQUES M.A., ENSIC-INPL, Nancy, France
403

12. Vacuum, Freeze and Contact Drying
Atmospheric freeze-drying: experimentation and modelisation
WOLFF E. and GIBERT H., INRA et INAPG, Thiverval, France
411
An analysis of the combined vacuum conductive-radiative drying
NASTAJ J., Techn.Univ. of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
417
Convective drying of a slurry in an agitated conical dryer
BILIC M., Saponia Chemicalsractory, Osijek, Yugoslavia and OLUJIC Z., Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft, The Netherlands
421
Stability of the phase front in sublimation dehydration: analysis and experiments
ROZHDESTVENSKY A.V. and VOLINETS A.Z., Inst. of Chem. Eng., Moscow, USSR and MUJUMDAR A.S., McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada
427
Modelisation and simulation of drum-drying
ABCHIR F., VASSEUR J. and TRYSTRAM G., ENSIA, Massy, France
435
The membrane-based concentration and the vacuum drying of proteins and enzymes
TAYLOR G. and HOARE M., Univ. College London, London, England
617

13. Spray Drying and Drops: B
Simulation of simultaneous spray reaction and drying system
CHANDER H., GHOSH P.K. and NARANG H.P., National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India, BAVEJA K.K. and DHINGRA S.C., Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India
441
Effect of viscosity on spray drying of milk
HAYASHI H. and KUDO N., Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Tokyo, Japan
449
Preparation of fine particles of cobalt oxide by spray and freeze drying of aqueous salt solution
MATSUDA H., KUMAZAWA K. and HASATANI M., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan
455
A study of evaporation from, and drying of single-droplets
ALI H.H., MUMFORD C.J., JEFFREYS G.V. and BAINS G.S., Aston Univ., Birmingham, England
463
The drying of free-falling droplets of concentrated skim-milk
FLICK D., LENOIR Ph. and GIBERT H. - CEMAGREF, Antony, France
471

14. External Transfers and Evaporation
Interfacial phenomena of capillary evaporation
CHENG S.L., MAA J.R. and YANG Y.M., Dpt of Chem. Eng., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
479
On the mechanism of the constant drying rate period
SCHLUNDER E.U., Institut fur Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, F.R.G.
487
Selective evaporation of a ternary mixture containing one non-volafile component
RIEDE Th. and SCHLUNDER E.U., Institut fur Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe F.R.G.
491
Effects of saturation heterogeneities on the interfarial mass transfer relation
MANEVAL J.E. and WHITAKER S., Univ. of California, Davis, U.S.A.
499
Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer in a falling film evaporator
BARKAOUI M., RAMADANE A., AOUFOUSSI Z., LOUIS G. and LE GOFF P., LSGC-CNRS-ENSIC-INPL, Nancy, France
507

15. General Aspects of the Drying Process
On the interaction of product qualities and performance of drying
BUHLER W. and LIEDY W., BASF, Ludwigshafen, F.RG.
515
The drying of sawngoods with heat pumps in France: technical and economical aspects
SMADJA P., EDF, Chatou, France
523
Drying research and development in P.R. China
ZHANG Y.F., PAN Y.K. and WEI Z., Tianjin Institute, Tianjin, China
531
Minimum energy thermodynamic cycles for determined thermal process and application to drying
NASSIKAS, A.A. and AKRITIDIS C.B., Univ. of Thessaloniki, Greece
537
Survey of dryer sections of Canadian market pulp machines
SAYEGH N.N. and PIKULIK I.I., Pulp and Paper Research Inst., Pointe Claire, Canada
545

16. Fixed Beds
Wet problem regions remaining after in-bin drying: a two-dimensional model showing the formation of cool wet wall-regions during in-bins drying of wheat
WILSON S.G., Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Highen, Australia, NGUYEN T.V., Division of Mineral Engineering, C.S.I.RO., Clayton, Australia
553
Simulation of deep bed drying of particles
RATTANAPANT O., LAGUERRE J.C. and BIMBENET J.J., ENSIA Massy, France and LEBERT A., INRA, Massy, Frence
565
Study and modelling of drying step in the zinc ores sinter-roasting and iron ores sintertng operations
BELLOT J.P., PATISSON F. and ABLITZER D., LSG.2M, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France
573
Computer simulation of effects of exhaust air recycling on the performance of a batch through-flow dryer
TANTHAPANICHAKOON W. and CHEANMINGKWAN C., Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok, Thailand
583
Analysis of the performance of a cascade type rice dryer
HELVACI S.S. and PEKER S., Ege Univ., Izmir, Turkey
589

17. Dehumidification of Air and Osmotic Dehydration
The "dry-absorb" process: drying with air dehydrated by absorption in an hygroscopic solution
LE GOFF P. and BOUGUELIA A., LSGS-CNRS-ENSIC-INPL, Nancy, France and DESMORIEUX H., ENSIAA, N'Gaoundere, Cameroun
595
Osmotic dehydration: study of mass transfer in terms of engineering properties
RAOULT-WACK A.L., LAFONT F. ind GUILBERT S., Ceemat, Montpellier, France
601
Liquid sorption drying utilizing mechanical energy ind desorption by air
SCALABRIN G., Padova Univ., Padova, Italy
609
Studies of the drying kinetics of air flow through thin layers of silica gel
KRAVCHIK, T., KORIN E. and BORDE I., Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Shevi, Israel
625

18. Humidity and Moisture Measurement and Control
Application of EVM for on-line moisture measurement in drying processes
REILLY P.M., SULLIVAN G.R, WHALEY M.G. , Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, and KRAUEL K.B., DANTEC Electronics, Waterloo, Canada
633
Non-invasive measurement of moisture profiles during the drying of an apple
PEREZ E., KAUTEN R. and Mc CARTHY M.J., Univ. of California, Davis, U.S.A.
637
Control system of final moisture content of material in convective dryers
BOLEK E., SPIRNEK J. and WEBER W., Centre of Automation, Lodz, Poland
645
Drying of paper: measurement of local moisture content
RUEFF M. and CHARUEL R., Emle Francaise de Papeterie, St Martin d`Heres, Franoe
653
Moisture sensing and control in a recirculating-batch grain dryer
BRUCE D.M., AFRC Inst. of Eng. Res., Silsoe, England
659